Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Rhabdomyolysis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Eyal Muscal, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Lawrence K Jung, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 22, 2015
 

Approach Considerations

Assess the ABCs (A irway, B reathing, C irculation), and provide supportive care as needed. Ensure adequate hydration, and record urine output. Insert a Foley catheter for careful monitoring of urine output. Identify and correct the inciting cause of rhabdomyolysis (eg, trauma, infection, or toxins).[71]

General recommendations for the treatment of rhabdomyolysis include fluid resuscitation and prevention of end-organ complications (eg, acute renal failure [ARF]). Other supportive measures include correction of electrolyte imbalances.[1, 72] Obtain an ECG to monitor effects of hyperkalemia and other electrolyte disturbances.

Serial physical examinations and laboratory studies are indicated to monitor for compartment syndrome, hyperkalemia, acute oliguric or nonoliguric renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Compartment syndrome necessitates immediate orthopedic consultation for fasciotomy. DIC should be treated with fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelet transfusions. Monitor cardiac function. Monitor creatine kinase (CK) levels to show resolution of rhabdomyolysis.

Once the patient’s condition has been stabilized and life- and limb-threatening conditions have been addressed, he or she may be transferred to another facility if necessary. Follow the guidelines of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) and the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). In natural disasters, patients often have to be evacuated out of affected areas and transported to locations that can provide dialysis services.[1]

Once they are well hydrated, patients with normal renal function, normal electrolyte levels, alkaline urine, and an isolated cause of muscle injury may be discharged and monitored as outpatients. Any diagnostic or genetic tests during inpatient stay should be communicated to primary care or outpatient specialty physicians.

Next

Fluid Resuscitation

Expansion of extracellular volume is the cornerstone of treatment and must be initiated as soon as possible. No randomized trials of fluid repletion regimens in any age group have been done.[3] Retrospective studies of patients with severe crush injuries resulting in rhabdomyolysis suggest that the prognosis is better when prehospital personnel provide fluid resuscitation.[72] Support of intravascular volume increases the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and oxygen delivery and dilutes myoglobin and other renal tubular toxins.

Patients with a CK elevation in excess of 2-3 times the reference range, appropriate clinical history, and risk factors should be suspected of having rhabdomyolysis. Obtain intravenous (IV) access with a large-bore catheter. For adults, administer isotonic fluids at a rate of approximately 400 mL/h (may be up to 1000 mL/h based on type of condition and severity) and then titrate to maintain a urine output of at least 200 mL/h.[3]

Because injured myocytes can sequester large volumes of extracellular fluid, crystalloid requirements may be surprisingly large. In patients with CK levels of 15,000 IU/L or greater, higher volumes of fluid, on the order of at least 6 L in adults, are required.[73] (Consider central venous pressure measurement or Swan-Ganz catheterization in patients with cardiac or renal disease. These invasive studies can assist in the assessment of the intravascular volume.) Repeat the CK assay every 6-12 hours to determine the peak CK level.

Aggressive and early hydration with isotonic sodium chloride solution is important for the prevention of pigment-associated renal failure. The composition of repletion fluid is controversial and may also include sodium bicarbonate. Initial fluid use in young children has been recommended to be 20 mL/kg; in adolescents, 1-2 L/h has been recommended. Subsequent hydration at a level 2-3 times maintenance may be sufficient.[11, 74] Few studies of fluid repletion regimens in children are available.[11]

Previous
Next

Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Failure

ARF develops in 30-40% of patients with rhabdomyolysis. Suggested mechanisms include the following:

  • Precipitation of myoglobin and uric acid crystals within renal tubules
  • Decreased glomerular perfusion
  • Nephrotoxic effect of ferrihemate

Ferrihemate and globin are the breakdown products of myoglobin when pH levels fall to less than 5.6. Ferrihemate is one of the agents responsible for acute tubular necrosis (ATN). It contains iron, a transition element, which is free to accept and donate electrons. This results in the generation of free radicals, which cause direct renal cell injury. Heme-proteins may also affect nitrous oxide (NO), endothelin receptors, and cytokines.[14]

Suggested predictors of the development of AKI and potentially renal failure include the following[62] :

  • Peak CK level higher than 6000 IU/L
  • Dehydration (hematocrit >50, serum sodium level >150 mEq/L, orthostasis, pulmonary wedge pressure < 5 mm Hg, urinary fractional excretion of sodium < 1%)
  • Sepsis
  • Hyperkalemia or hyperphosphatemia on admission
  • Hypoalbuminemia

AKI has occasionally developed in severely dehydrated patients with peak CK levels as low as 2000 IU/L. To prevent renal failure, many authorities advocate urinary alkalization, mannitol, and loop diuretics.

Alkalization of urine is believed to be helpful and is based on the observation that acidic urine is necessary to cause ATN. Alkalinization may also reduce the occurrence of cast formation (ferrihemate and myoglobin). Some authorities believe that aggressive hydration sufficiently causes a solute diuresis that alkalizes the urine. Evidence for the use of these agents is mostly from animal studies and retrospective adult studies. There is no supporting evidence in the pediatric literature regarding alkalinization of urine.[10] It is recommended for patients with rhabdomyolysis and CK levels higher than 6000 IU/L.

Urinary alkalization should be considered earlier in patients with acidemia, dehydration, or underlying renal disease. A suggested regimen for adult patients is isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9% NaCl) with 1 ampule of sodium bicarbonate administered at 100 mL/h. Sodium bicarbonate is used with care because it may potentiate hypocalcemia. The IV bicarbonate concentration is often adjusted to achieve a urine pH higher than 6.5-7.0. This level of alkalization inhibits precipitation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in the tubules. If the pH of urine less than 6.5, alternate each liter of normal saline with 1 L of 5% dextrose plus 100 mmol of bicarbonate.

If urine output is adequate, consider the use of diuretics such as mannitol (in adults) and furosemide. Mannitol, acting as an osmotic diuretic, is thought to increase urinary flow and reduce myoglobin cast obstruction in renal tubules.[1] Its efficacy has not been adequately compared with that of aggressive hydration regimens.[3, 14, 75] Loop diuretics such as furosemide may be used to enhance urinary output in patients who are oliguric despite adequate intravascular volume. It is recommended that aggressive volume expansion is to be maintained until myoglobinuria is cleared. Prospective multicenter studies may be necessary to understand the efficacy of bicarbonate and manitol in patients with rhabdomyolysis.

Previous
Next

Correction of Electrolyte, Acid-Base, and Metabolic Abnormalities

Frequently monitor serum electrolyte levels, urine pH levels, and acid-base status.[1, 72] Metabolic abnormalities should also be addressed.

Treatment of hyperkalemia consists of IV sodium bicarbonate, glucose, and insulin; oral or rectal sodium polystyrene sulfonate; and hemodialysis. These measures transiently shift potassium from extracellular to intracellular compartments.[11, 69] Administer IV calcium chloride for patients who are hemodynamically compromised and hyperkalemic.

Hypocalcemia is noted early in the course of rhabdomyolysis and generally is not of clinical significance. Correct hypocalcemia only if the patient has cardiac dysrhythmias or seizures. Calcium may combine with phosphate, forming a metastatic calcification, often intramuscularly. Calcium supplementation is not recommended, as hypercalcemia may be seen in the recovery phase (late).

Hyperuricemia and hyperphosphatemia rarely are of clinical significance and rarely require treatment. Control of hyperphosphatemia, if required, is achieved by using alkaline diuresis. Hypercalcemia may develop during the recovery phase, especially if there is acute kidney injury.

Previous
Next

Other Medical Treatment Measures

Dialysis may be required in patients with oliguric renal failure, persistent hyperkalemia, other electrolyte abnormalities, pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, and persistent metabolic acidosis.

The role of free-radical scavengers and antioxidants in rhabdomyolysis (eg, pentoxifylline, vitamin E, and vitamin C) has been studied in animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of these agents have not been performed, and their clinical use remains unclear.[14, 3]

With adequate hydration ensured, no specific outpatient medications are needed. Inciting myotoxic agents should be stopped.

Previous
Next

Fasciotomy and Treatment of Fractures

Surgical care may be necessary, depending on the cause of rhabdomyolysis.[1]

Compartment pressures should be measured when significant muscle injury has occurred (see Workup). Muscle injury results from decreased tissue perfusion, which is caused by increased pressure within the affected space. High intracompartmental pressures mediate further ischemia, damage, and necrosis. When the intracompartmental pressure exceeds 30 mm Hg, a fasciotomy is advocated. Prolonged elevated intracompartmental pressure may lead to irreversible peripheral nerve injury.[1]

Limb fractures may require surgical and orthopedic treatment.[76]

Previous
Next

Diet

Dietary modification may help to reduce the symptoms associated with some of the metabolic disorders and inborn errors of metabolism.[12]

Dietary supplementation with glucose or fructose may decrease the pain and fatigue associated with phosphorylase deficiency. The muscle pain and myoglobinuria due to carnitine palmityl transferase deficiency may be reduced with frequent meals and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Substitution of medium-chained triglycerides may also be helpful.

Dietary modification does not seem to change the muscle symptoms of phosphofructokinase deficiency or phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency.

Previous
Next

Activity

Strenuous activities (eg, competitive sports) should be avoided if they cause recurrent myalgias, myopathy, or rhabdomyolysis.[12] Children and adolescents with recurrent rhabdomyolysis related to exertion require further medical evaluation.

High-school coaches and trainers must ensure proper hydration and maintain fluid balance during practice sessions and games. Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion must be evaluated in a timely fashion during hot and humid conditions.[53]

Previous
Next

Prevention

Once a preventable inciting cause of rhabdomyolysis is identified, the patient must make an effort to avoid it. Exercise should be reduced or avoided if it is causing or exacerbating rhabdomyolysis.[77]

Alcohol should be avoided. Overdose of narcotics, sedative-hypnotics, or any other drugs known to cause immobilization and, hence, pressure necrosis should be avoided. Proper mental health and drug rehabilitation services should be offered to individuals with substance use disorders. Use of stimulants (eg, cocaine, amphetamines, or Ecstasy) should be discouraged.

Compliance with seizure and asthma medications may reduce status epilepticus, status asthmaticus, or both.

Any risky behavior that results in trauma should be avoided.

Previous
Next

Consultations

Consult a nephrologist for patients who have significant rhabdomyolysis, show evidence of renal failure, or require dialysis. Indications for hemodialysis include hyperkalemia that is persistent despite therapy, severe acid-base disturbances, refractory pulmonary edema, and progressive renal failure.

Consult a neurologist for patients with status epilepticus or new-onset seizures.

Consult an orthopedic surgeon for patients with a limb fracture or suspected compartment syndrome.

Notify the poison control center in cases of overdose or snake/insect envenomation.

Consult a geneticist or metabolism specialist for patients with genetic or metabolic abnormalities. Diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and prompt metabolic interventions may be life-saving.

Consult a rheumatologist for patients with suspected inflammatory myopathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Eyal Muscal, MD, MS Assistant Professor, Section of Pediatric Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital

Eyal Muscal, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Marietta Morales DeGuzman, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Section of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Hospital, Ben Taub General Hospital

Marietta Morales DeGuzman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Rheumatology, Texas Pediatric Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Lawrence K Jung, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Children's National Medical Center

Lawrence K Jung, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Sandy Craig, MD, Residency Program Director, Carolinas Medical Center; Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

Sandy Craig, MD is a member of the following societies; Alpha Omega Alpha and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Herbert S Diamond, MD Adjunct Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Chairman Emeritus, Department of Internal Medicine, Western Pennsylvania Hospital

Herbert S Diamond, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology, American Medical Association, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Merck Ownership interest Other; Smith Kline Ownership interest Other; Zimmer Ownership interest Other

Lance W Kreplick, MD, FAAEM, MMM Medical Director of Hyperbaric Medicine, Fawcett Wound Management and Hyperbaric Medicine; Consulting Staff in Occupational Health and Rehabilitation, Company Care Occupational Health Services; President and Chief Executive Officer, QED Medical Solutions, LLC

Lance W Kreplick, MD, FAAEM, MMM, is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine and American College of Physician Executives

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Barry L Myones, MD Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Immunology, Pediatric Rheumatology Section, Baylor College of Medicine; Director of Research, Pediatric Rheumatology Center, Texas Children's Hospital

Barry L Myones, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Rheumatology, American Heart Association, American Society for Microbiology, Clinical Immunology Society, and Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Tom Scaletta, MD Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Edward Hospital; Past-President, American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Tom Scaletta, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Binita R Shah, MD, FAAP, Professor of Clinical Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, SUNY Health Sciences Center at Brooklyn; Director of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Kings County Hospital Center

Binita R Shah, MD, FAAPis a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Renee Wilson, MD, Clinical Assistant Instructor, Department of Emergency Medicine, SUNY-Downstate and Kings County Hospital

Renee Wilson, MDis a member of the following medical societies: Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Vanholder R, Sever MS, Erek E, Lameire N. Rhabdomyolysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000 Aug. 11(8):1553-61. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  2. Paller MS. Hemoglobin- and myoglobin-induced acute renal failure in rats: role of iron in nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol. 1988 Sep. 255(3 Pt 2):F539-44. [Medline].

  3. Bosch X, Poch E, Grau JM. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 2. 361(1):62-72. [Medline].

  4. Beetham R. Biochemical investigation of suspected rhabdomyolysis. Ann Clin Biochem. 2000 Sep. 37 ( Pt 5):581-7. [Medline].

  5. Better OS. The crush syndrome revisited (1940-1990). Nephron. 1990. 55(2):97-103. [Medline].

  6. Mannix R, Tan ML, Wright R, Baskin M. Acute pediatric rhabdomyolysis: causes and rates of renal failure. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov. 118(5):2119-25. [Medline].

  7. Cervellin G, Comelli I, Lippi G. Rhabdomyolysis: historical background, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010 Jun. 48(6):749-56. [Medline].

  8. Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Kelleher SP. The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 1982 May. 61(3):141-52. [Medline].

  9. Watemberg N, Leshner RL, Armstrong BA, Lerman-Sagie T. Acute pediatric rhabdomyolysis. J Child Neurol. 2000 Apr. 15(4):222-7. [Medline].

  10. Elsayed EF, Reilly RF. Rhabdomyolysis: a review, with emphasis on the pediatric population. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Jan. 25(1):7-18. [Medline].

  11. Luck RP, Verbin S. Rhabdomyolysis: a review of clinical presentation, etiology, diagnosis, and management. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Apr. 24(4):262-8. [Medline].

  12. Brumback RA, Feeback DL, Leech RW. Rhabdomyolysis in childhood. A primer on normal muscle function and selected metabolic myopathies characterized by disordered energy production. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1992 Aug. 39(4):821-58. [Medline].

  13. Sitprija V. Animal toxins and the kidney. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2008 Nov. 4(11):616-27. [Medline].

  14. Huerta-Alardín AL, Varon J, Marik PE. Bench-to-bedside review: Rhabdomyolysis -- an overview for clinicians. Crit Care. 2005 Apr. 9(2):158-69. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  15. Malinoski DJ, Slater MS, Mullins RJ. Crush injury and rhabdomyolysis. Crit Care Clin. 2004 Jan. 20(1):171-92. [Medline].

  16. Schwengel D, Ludwig S. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria as manifestations of child abuse. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1985 Dec. 1(4):194-7. [Medline].

  17. Peebles J, Losek JD. Child physical abuse and rhabdomyolysis: case report and literature review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007 Jul. 23(7):474-7. [Medline].

  18. Singh U, Scheld WM. Infectious etiologies of rhabdomyolysis: three case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Apr. 22(4):642-9. [Medline].

  19. Nauss MD, Schmidt EL, Pancioli AM. Viral myositis leading to rhabdomyolysis: a case report and literature review. Am J Emerg Med. 2009 Mar. 27(3):372.e5-372.e6. [Medline].

  20. Patel N, Patel N, Espinoza LR. HIV infection and rheumatic diseases: the changing spectrum of clinical enigma. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2009 Feb. 35(1):139-61. [Medline].

  21. Wang YM, Zhang Y, Ye ZB. Rhabdomyolysis following recent severe coxsackie virus infection in patient with chronic renal failure: one case report and a review of the literature. Ren Fail. 2006. 28(1):89-93. [Medline].

  22. Pirounaki M, Liatsos G, Elefsiniotis I, Skounakis M, Moulakakis A. Unusual onset of varicella zoster reactivation with meningoencephalitis, followed by rhabdomyolysis and renal failure in a young, immunocompetent patient. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007. 39(1):90-3. [Medline].

  23. Gupta M, Ghaffari M, Freire AX. Rhabdomyolysis in a patient with West Nile encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Tenn Med. 2008 Apr. 101(4):45-7. [Medline].

  24. Eliasson H, Broman T, Forsman M, Bäck E. Tularemia: current epidemiology and disease management. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Jun. 20(2):289-311, ix. [Medline].

  25. Antonarakis ES, Wung PK, Durand DJ, Leyngold I, Meyerson DA. An atypical complication of atypical pneumonia. Am J Med. 2006 Oct. 119(10):824-7. [Medline].

  26. Weng WC, Peng SS, Wang SB, Chou YT, Lee WT. Mycoplasma pneumoniae--associated transverse myelitis and rhabdomyolysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Feb. 40(2):128-30. [Medline].

  27. Turhan V, Atasoyu EM, Kucukardali Y, Polat E, Cesur T, Cavuslu S. Leptospirosis presenting as severe rhabdomyolysis and pulmonary haemorrhage. J Infect. 2006 Jan. 52(1):e1-2. [Medline].

  28. Lin AC, Lin CM, Wang TL, Leu JG. Rhabdomyolysis in 119 students after repetitive exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Jan. 39(1):e3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  29. Scheuerman O, Wanders RJ, Waterham HR, Dubnov-Raz G, Garty BZ. Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency with recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Jun. 40(6):465-7. [Medline].

  30. Korematsu S, Kosugi Y, Kumamoto T, Yamaguchi S, Izumi T. Novel mutation of early, perinatal-onset, myopathic-type very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Aug. 41(2):151-3. [Medline].

  31. Löfberg M, Jänkälä H, Paetau A, Härkönen M, Somer H. Metabolic causes of recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1998 Oct. 98(4):268-75. [Medline].

  32. Agrawal S, Agrawal V, Taneja A. Hypokalemia causing rhabdomyolysis resulting in life-threatening hyperkalemia. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 Feb. 21(2):289-91. [Medline].

  33. Knochel JP. Hypophosphatemia and rhabdomyolysis. Am J Med. 1992 May. 92(5):455-7. [Medline].

  34. Strachan P, Prisco D, Multz AS. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis associated with polydipsia-induced hyponatremia - a case report and review of the literature. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007 Mar-Apr. 29(2):172-4. [Medline].

  35. Lichtstein DM, Arteaga RB. Rhabdomyolysis associated with hyperthyroidism. Am J Med Sci. 2006 Aug. 332(2):103-5. [Medline].

  36. Pedrozzi NE, Ramelli GP, Tomasetti R, Nobile-Buetti L, Bianchetti MG. Rhabdomyolysis and anesthesia: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurol. 1996 Oct. 15(3):254-7. [Medline].

  37. Hollander AS, Olney RC, Blackett PR, Marshall BA. Fatal malignant hyperthermia-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis complicating the presentation of diabetes mellitus in adolescent males. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun. 111(6 Pt 1):1447-52. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  38. Coco TJ, Klasner AE. Drug-induced rhabdomyolysis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004 Apr. 16(2):206-10. [Medline].

  39. Hall AP, Henry JA. Acute toxic effects of 'Ecstasy' (MDMA) and related compounds: overview of pathophysiology and clinical management. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Jun. 96(6):678-85. [Medline].

  40. Ahn SC. Neuromuscular complications of statins. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2008 Feb. 19(1):47-59, vi. [Medline].

  41. Oshima Y. Characteristics of drug-associated rhabdomyolysis: analysis of 8,610 cases reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Intern Med. 2011. 50(8):845-53. [Medline].

  42. Wrenn KD, Oschner I. Rhabdomyolysis induced by a caffeine overdose. Ann Emerg Med. 1989 Jan. 18(1):94-7. [Medline].

  43. Holoshitz N, Alsheikh-Ali AA, Karas RH. Relative safety of gemfibrozil and fenofibrate in the absence of concomitant cerivastatin use. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jan 1. 101(1):95-7. [Medline].

  44. Hung CF, Huang TY, Lin PY. Hypothermia and rhabdomyolysis following olanzapine injection in an adolescent with schizophreniform disorder. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 Jul-Aug. 31(4):376-8. [Medline].

  45. Wysowski DK, Pollock ML. Reports of death with use of propofol (Diprivan) for nonprocedural (long-term) sedation and literature review. Anesthesiology. 2006 Nov. 105(5):1047-51. [Medline].

  46. Graham DJ, Staffa JA, Shatin D, Andrade SE, Schech SD, La Grenade L, et al. Incidence of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs. JAMA. 2004 Dec 1. 292(21):2585-90. [Medline].

  47. Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH. Statin-associated myopathy. JAMA. 2003 Apr 2. 289(13):1681-90. [Medline].

  48. Urso ML, Clarkson PM, Hittel D, Hoffman EP, Thompson PD. Changes in ubiquitin proteasome pathway gene expression in skeletal muscle with exercise and statins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec. 25(12):2560-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  49. Joy TR, Hegele RA. Narrative review: statin-related myopathy. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jun 16. 150(12):858-68. [Medline].

  50. Wiegman A, Hutten BA, de Groot E, Rodenburg J, Bakker HD, Büller HR, et al. Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Jul 21. 292(3):331-7. [Medline].

  51. Kao LW, Nañagas KA. Toxicity associated with carbon monoxide. Clin Lab Med. 2006 Mar. 26(1):99-125. [Medline].

  52. Aslam AF, Aslam AK, Vasavada BC, Khan IA. Hypothermia: evaluation, electrocardiographic manifestations, and management. Am J Med. 2006 Apr. 119(4):297-301. [Medline].

  53. Bergeron MF, McKeag DB, Casa DJ, Clarkson PM, Dick RW, Eichner ER, et al. Youth football: heat stress and injury risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Aug. 37(8):1421-30. [Medline].

  54. Hurley JK. Severe rhabdomyolysis in well conditioned athletes. Mil Med. 1989 May. 154(5):244-5. [Medline].

  55. Sinert R, Kohl L, Rainone T, Scalea T. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Jun. 23(6):1301-6. [Medline].

  56. Chen YJ, Chang SH, Yuan A, Huang CH, Lee CC. Rhabdomyolysis after successful resuscitation of a patient with near-fatal asthma. Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul. 25(6):736.e3-4. [Medline].

  57. Mehta R, Fisher LE Jr, Segeleon JE, Pearson-Shaver AL, Wheeler DS. Acute rhabdomyolysis complicating status asthmaticus in children: case series and review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006 Aug. 22(8):587-91. [Medline].

  58. Song SH, Lee DW, Lee SB, Kwak IS. Rhabdomyolysis caused by strenuous computer gaming. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Apr. 22(4):1263-4. [Medline].

  59. Melli G, Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR. Rhabdomyolysis: an evaluation of 475 hospitalized patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005 Nov. 84(6):377-85. [Medline].

  60. Wu CT, Huang JL, Lin JJ, Hsia SH. Factors associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure of children in Taiwan population. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Oct. 25(10):657-60. [Medline].

  61. Chamberlain MC. Rhabdomyolysis in children: a 3-year retrospective study. Pediatr Neurol. 1991 May-Jun. 7(3):226-8. [Medline].

  62. Ward MM. Factors predictive of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Jul. 148(7):1553-7. [Medline].

  63. Fernandez WG, Hung O, Bruno GR, Galea S, Chiang WK. Factors predictive of acute renal failure and need for hemodialysis among ED patients with rhabdomyolysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Jan. 23(1):1-7. [Medline].

  64. Li SF, Zapata J, Tillem E. The prevalence of false-positive cardiac troponin I in ED patients with rhabdomyolysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Nov. 23(7):860-3. [Medline].

  65. Baeza-Trinidad R, Brea-Hernando A, Morera-Rodriguez S, Brito-Diaz Y, Sanchez-Hernandez S, El Bikri L, et al. Creatinine as predictor value of mortality and acute kidney injury in rhabdomyolysis. Intern Med J. 2015 May 26. [Medline].

  66. Lappalainen H, Tiula E, Uotila L, Mänttäri M. Elimination kinetics of myoglobin and creatine kinase in rhabdomyolysis: implications for follow-up. Crit Care Med. 2002 Oct. 30(10):2212-5. [Medline].

  67. Minnema BJ, Neligan PC, Quraishi NA, Fehlings MG, Prakash S. A case of occult compartment syndrome and nonresolving rhabdomyolysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jun. 23(6):871-4. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  68. Young SE, Miller MA, Docherty M. Urine dipstick testing to rule out rhabdomyolysis in patients with suspected heat injury. Am J Emerg Med. 2009 Sep. 27(7):875-7. [Medline].

  69. Salluzzo R, Schwartz M,. Rhabdomyolysis. Emergency Clinical Practice. 4th ed. 1998. 2478-86.

  70. Moratalla MB, Braun P, Fornas GM. Importance of MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of rhabdomyolysis. Eur J Radiol. 2008 Feb. 65(2):311-5. [Medline].

  71. [Guideline] Finnish Medical Society Duodecim. Rhabdomyolysis. EBM Guidelines. Evidence-Based Medicine [Internet]. Helsinki, Finland: Wiley Interscience. John Wiley & Sons; 2007 Apr 12. [Full Text].

  72. Better OS, Stein JH. Early management of shock and prophylaxis of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. N Engl J Med. 1990 Mar 22. 322(12):825-9. [Medline].

  73. Iraj N, Saeed S, Mostafa H, Houshang S, Ali S, Farin RF, et al. Prophylactic fluid therapy in crushed victims of Bam earthquake. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Sep. 29(7):738-42. [Medline].

  74. Gunn VL, Nechyba C, eds. The Harriet Lane Handbook. 16th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier, Inc.; 2002. 45:

  75. Brown CV, Rhee P, Chan L, Evans K, Demetriades D, Velmahos GC. Preventing renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis: do bicarbonate and mannitol make a difference?. J Trauma. 2004 Jun. 56(6):1191-6. [Medline].

  76. Sever MS, Vanholder R, Lameire N. Management of crush-related injuries after disasters. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 9. 354(10):1052-63. [Medline].

  77. Thoenes M. Rhabdomyolysis: when exercising becomes a risk. J Pediatr Health Care. 2010 May-Jun. 24(3):189-93. [Medline].

  78. Harding A. New risk score predicts outcome in rhabdomyolysis. Medscape Medical News. September 4, 2013. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/810443. Accessed: September 9, 2013.

  79. McMahon GM, Zeng X, Waikar SS. A Risk Prediction Score for Kidney Failure or Mortality in Rhabdomyolysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Sep 2. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Model of helical domains in myoglobin (protein linked to kidney damage in rhabdomyolysis).
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.