Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Castor Bean and Jequirity Bean Poisoning

  • Author: William Gluckman, DO, MBA, FACEP; Chief Editor: Timothy E Corden, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 29, 2015
 

Background

Although castor and jequirity beans are an uncommon cause of poisoning, they remain a concern because their toxins are among the most lethal naturally occurring toxins known today. The beans most commonly are used for ornamental purposes, such as prayer or rosary beads, or in musical shakers (maracas).

The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is found primarily in Asia and Africa, but the plant has taken root in all temperate and subtropical regions around the world. See the image below.

Castor bush. Castor bush.

In fact, the castor bean plant grows in the southwest United States mainly along streams and riverbeds. Castor beans are oblong and brown in color with speckled dark brown spot. See the image below.

Castor beans. Castor beans.

Jequirity bean plant (Abrus precatorius) is primarily found in southeast Asia, but has spread to subtropical regions. See the image below.

Jequirity bush. Jequirity bush.

The jequirity bean has a shiny appearance and is mainly red in color with a black spot. See the image below.

Jequirity beans. Jequirity beans.

For centuries, ricin and abrin, the toxin contained in the seeds of the castor and jequirity beans, respectively, have been used for homicidal purposes. The ease of production of ricin makes it very attractive as an agent that could be used by a terrorist or other criminal. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes ricin as a category B agent because it is moderately easy to disseminate while causing moderate-to-high morbidity in humans.

During the 1980s, the Iraqi government made weapon-grade ricin, and it was tested on animals and in artillery shells. In 2003, ricin was found in US Senator Bill Frist's office, and, in January of that same year, Arabs connected to Al-Qaeda were arrested in a London apartment while trying to manufacture ricin.[1] In February 2008, a man was poisoned in a hotel room in Las Vegas, Nevada. Because of the ongoing threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the United States, physicians must become familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of poisonings due to substances such as ricin.

Next

Pathophysiology

These beans contain potent toxalbumins that inhibit protein synthesis and cause severe cytotoxic effects on multiple organ systems. Castor beans contain the toxalbumin ricin, and jequirity beans contain abrin. The toxins are present in all parts of the plant but are most concentrated in the beans or seeds. Symptoms include delayed gastroenteritis, which may be severe and hemorrhagic, followed by delirium, seizures, coma, and death. The beans are covered by a hard, relatively impervious outer shell that must be chewed or broken in some way in order for the toxalbumin to be released and, thus, present a toxic hazard. Castor beans are particularly antigenic and may cause severe cutaneous hypersensitivity and systemic reactions.

Previous
Next

Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

Jequirity and castor bean ingestions are extremely uncommon. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) recorded 168 cases of toxalbumin cases.[2] Of those 156 were single exposures, 53 of which were treated in a health care facility. No deaths were reported and only one was considered to have a major adverse reaction.

Mortality/Morbidity

Fatalities have occasionally been reported following ingestion of chewed castor beans. Chewing and swallowing as little as 1 bean may produce death in a child; however, swallowing an intact bean without chewing is unlikely to cause serious sequelae. Jequirity bean mortality is 5% for ingestion, and death may occur as long as 14 days after poisoning.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

William Gluckman, DO, MBA, FACEP President and CEO, FastER Urgent Care

William Gluckman, DO, MBA, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey R Tucker, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center

Disclosure: Received salary from Merck for employment.

Chief Editor

Timothy E Corden, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Co-Director, Policy Core, Injury Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin; Associate Director, PICU, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin

Timothy E Corden, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Phi Beta Kappa, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Wisconsin Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael E Mullins, MD Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Emergency Department, Barnes-Jewish Hospital

Michael E Mullins, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Received stock ownership from Johnson & Johnson for none; Received stock ownership from Savient Pharmaceuticals for none.

Acknowledgements

Gregory S Sugalski, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Hospital

Gregory S Sugalski, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association and Emergency Medicine Residents Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank John Kashani, DO, FACEP, for his review and comments.

References
  1. Audi J, Belson M, Patel M, et al. Ricin poisoning: a comprehensive review. JAMA. 2005. Nov 9;294(18):2342-51. [Medline].

  2. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, Green J, Rumack BH, Heard SE. 2006 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS). Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007 Dec. 45(8):815-917. [Medline].

  3. Røen BT, Opstad AM, Haavind A, Tønsager J. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication. J Anal Toxicol. 2013 Jun. 37(5):313-7. [Medline].

  4. Doan LG. Ricin: mechanism of toxicity, clinical manifestations, and vaccine development. A review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004. 42(2):201-8. [Medline].

  5. Challoner KR, McCarron MM. Castor bean intoxication. Ann Emerg Med. 1990 Oct. 19(10):1177-83. [Medline].

  6. Coopman V, De Leeuw M, Cordonnier J, Jacobs W. Suicidal death after injection of a castor bean extract (Ricinus communis L.). Forensic Sci Int. 2009 Aug 10. 189(1-3):e13-20. [Medline].

  7. Fernando C. Poisoning due to Abrus precatorius (jequirity bean). Anaesthesia. 2001 Dec. 56(12):1178-80. [Medline].

  8. Ferraz AC, Angelucci ME, Da Costa ML, et al. Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Jul. 63(3):367-75. [Medline].

  9. Jang DH, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS. Attempted suicide, by mail order: Abrus precatorius. J Med Toxicol. 2010 Dec. 6(4):427-30. [Medline].

  10. Kinamore PA, Jaeger RW, de Castro FJ. Abrus and ricinus ingestion: management of three cases. Clin Toxicol. 1980 Oct. 17(3):401-5. [Medline].

  11. Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD. Plant exposures ... a national profile of the most common plant genera. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1997 Aug. 39(4):248-9. [Medline].

  12. Lim H, Kim HJ, Cho YS. A case of ricin poisoning following ingestion of Korean castor bean. Emerg Med J. 2009 Apr. 26(4):301-2. [Medline].

  13. Navarro-Rouimi R, Charpin D. Anaphylactic reaction to castor bean seeds. Allergy. 1999 Oct. 54(10):1117. [Medline].

  14. Olsnes S. The history of ricin, abrin and related toxins. Toxicon. 2004. Sep 15;44(4):361-70. [Medline].

  15. Palatnick W, Tenenbein M. Hepatotoxicity from castor bean ingestion in a child. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000. 38(1):67-9. [Medline].

  16. Rauber A. Plantlore revisited. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999. 37(4):521-4. [Medline].

  17. Schwenk M, Kluge S, Jaroni H. Toxicological aspects of preparedness and aftercare for chemical-incidents. Toxicology. 2005. 214(3):232-48. [Medline].

  18. Spivak L, Hendrickson RG. Ricin. Crit Care Clin. 2005. Oct;21(4):815-24, viii. [Medline].

  19. Vitetta ES, Smallshaw JE, Coleman E, et al. A pilot clinical trial of a recombinant ricin vaccine in normal humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006. 103(7):2268-73. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Castor bush.
Castor beans.
Jequirity bush.
Jequirity beans.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.