- Author: Paul P Rega, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Timothy E Corden, MD more...
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also know as entactogen (“to touch within” ) is one of the most potent psychoactive compounds known (said to be more than 3000 times more potent than mescaline). An oral dose of as little as 25 µg is capable of producing potential deleterious psychedelic effects.[2, 3] The image below depicts LSD in several different pill forms.
While LSD usage reached epidemic proportions in the 1960s, there has been a reduction of abuse owing to constraints on the manufacture and distribution of the drug. It is classified as a Schedule I drug by the US Food and Drug Administration. There has also been a concerted effort to educate the public that the psychedelic experiences are a health hazard. Nevertheless, its usage is not extinct. Pockets of continued abuse have been documented across the country.
LSD toxicity can lead to respiratory arrest, coma, emesis, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and bleeding disorders. In some cases, the patient's altered perceptions can result in behavioral toxicity, in which an individual fails to appreciate dangers in the environment and may be injured.
Signs and symptoms
Adverse effects of LSD use can include the following:
Panic reaction - May be triggered by an unexpected stressful setting
Amplification of unconscious fears
Suicidal or homicidal ideation
Fear of going insane or of the inability to return to normal
Perception of rapid aging of self or others
Somatic symptoms of LSD toxicity, which are usually due to sympathomimetic effects, include the following:
Loss of appetite
Seizures - Rare; typically with doses above 10 mcg/kg
Massive overdoses can lead to the following[1, 2] :
Coma - Very rare
LSD has been found to be responsible for triggering serotonin syndrome in patients already using precipitating drug combinations (serotonin precursors or agonists, serotonin-release stimulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs], nonselective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, nonspecific inhibitors of 5-HT metabolism).
HPPD and flashbacks
In hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), patients who are not intoxicated experience symptoms (flashbacks) that initially arose during LSD use. HPPD can last from months to years.
Patients can have a combination of perceptual and visual disturbances during flashbacks, including the following:
Flashes of color
Impaired color perception
See Clinical Presentation for more detail.
Although LSD toxicity is diagnosed primarily by way of history and physical examination, LSD can be detected by radioimmunoassay. levels from 1.5-5.5 ng/mL may be found within 24 hours after the patient has taken a 300-mcg dose of the drug. However, high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography is required for confirmation.
Diagnostic testing should be directed at identification of complications or exclusion of comorbidities. Coagulation, total creatine phosphokinase, or serum electrolyte studies may be indicated in patients with seizures, coma, or a neuroleptic malignant syndrome–like presentation to identify coagulopathy or rhabdomyolysis or to exclude other diagnoses.
See Workup for more detail.
The basic tenet of caring for patients who have ingested hallucinogens such as LSD is reassurance in a calm, stress-free environment that is safe for both patient and healthcare professionals. Rarely, patients need to be either sedated or physically restrained. Benzodiazepines can safely be given to treat agitation.[1, 2] Butyrophenones such as haloperidol may be required, although there is a small theoretic risk of lowering the seizure threshold.
Massive ingestions of LSD should be treated with supportive care, including respiratory support and endotracheal intubation if needed. The following should be treated symptomatically:
Hypotension - Should be treated initially with fluids and subsequently with pressors if required
Because of its large index of toxicity, an individual must have access to unusually concentrated forms of lysergsäurediethylamid, or lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), if he/she is to overdose. Massive overdoses, however, can lead to respiratory arrest, coma, emesis, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and bleeding disorders. In some cases, the patient's altered perceptions can result in behavioral toxicity, in which an individual fails to appreciate dangers in the environment and may be injured. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology , History and Physical Examination, Treatment, and Medication.)
LSD is one of the most powerful psychoactive drugs, with 3000 times the potency of mescaline. Doses as small as 1-1.5 mcg/kg can produce psychoactive effects; the minimum effective dose is approximately 25 mcg. The drug is odorless, colorless, and slightly bitter tasting. It is usually taken by mouth and rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
The possession of any amount of LSD is illegal in the United States; the drug has been designated a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act because of its high potential for abuse and lack of any legitimate medical purpose.
Development and history of LSD
The prototype of the hallucinogen class, LSD was first developed in 1938, when the Swiss biochemist Albert Hofmann synthesized it from lysergic acid while researching the medical effects of ergot-derived synthetic molecules. However, the hallucinogenic properties of LSD were not discovered until 1943, when Hofmann unintentionally ingested the substance and experienced an “extremely stimulated experience."
Hailed as a wonder drug in the field of psychoanalysis during the 1950s and 1960s, LSD was used in schizophrenia research to produce “experimental psychosis” (through alteration of neurotransmitter systems) and in so-called psycholytic and psychedelic therapies. Multiple reports suggested beneficial effects from the use of LSD in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sexual dysfunction. For over a decade, it was also used to treat children with autism.
The American psychologist, writer, and futurist Timothy Leary popularized LSD and other hallucinogens in the 1960s based on their alleged therapeutic and spiritual benefits. This led to a psychedelic revolution, with large numbers of people using LSD as part of a counterculture movement. Because of the resulting public health concerns, however, restrictions were placed on LSD research and on its use in psychotherapy, and the drug was banned for recreational purposes by federal law in 1966.
Currently, LSD is known for its use as a “club drug,” together with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB); 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also referred to as ecstasy; and ketamine. Other hallucinogens include mescaline, psilocybin, and ibogaine, which all possess a structural similarity to serotonin. (See DDx.)
LSD causes changes in thought, mood, and perception, with minimal effects on memory and orientation. The drug primarily produces so-called pseudohallucinations, which are illusions derived from the misinterpretation of actual experiences. These include synesthesias, in which the transposition of certain sensory modes occurs, creating an experience known as sensory crossover . For example, the perception of a sound evoked by a visual image or the impression of hearing colors or feeling sounds would be considered a synesthesia. True hallucinations occur as well; visual hallucinations are the most common. (See History and Physical Examination.)
Exposure to LSD causes pleasant and unpleasant emotions, but the overall effects are unpredictable and vary with the ingested amount, the user’s personality and mood, individual expectations, and surroundings. Users are typically aware that visual, auditory, and olfactorial perceptions are distorted and unreal; however, acute adverse drug effects can include panic reactions, psychoses, and major depression. (See Prognosis.)
One recent case report describes a young man under the influence of LSD and alcohol who amputated his testicles.
Synthesis and preparation
LSD can be synthesized from easily obtainable chemicals or from naturally occurring substances. Ergotamine alkaloids produced from a fungus that grows on rye and other grains contain lysergic acid. Lysergic acid amide (LSA), a Schedule III substance, is found in the seeds of morning glories and Hawaiian baby woodrose.
LSD is produced as a crystalline powder and then mixed with various binding agents.
See the images below.
According to the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the strength of samples obtained from illicit sources ranges from 20-80 mcg of LSD per dose. Although LSD possesses a wide margin of safety, single doses obtained over recent years were significantly less potent than those available during the 1960s and 1970s, when a dose contained 100-200 mcg or more of LSD.
Use and availability
Most LSD manufactured in the United States is intended for illegal use. Primary motivations given for the use of LSD are experimentation, a desire to feel good, and a perceived enhancement of social interactions. It is also inexpensive. Typically, a dose costs less than $15.00. Although small amounts of the drug are used for research purposes, it has no known medical applications. (See Epidemiology.)
Twenty to 80 µg of this colorless, tasteless, odorless, and water-soluble substance is most commonly ingested via a small square of dried "blotter" paper (blotter acid) that has been saturated with a solution of the compound. It is sprayed onto the small squares of decorative paper (creating the product known as blotter acid) and then both the drug and paper are eaten.The blotter paper is often imprinted with fanciful designs or cartoons (ie, trademarks for the manufacturer). Other forms of LSD administration include "microdots" (tiny tablets), "windowpane" (gelatin sheets), and liquid LSD.
Most illegal laboratories making LSD are found on the West Coast. The drug is sold under more than 80 street names, including "A", acid, Adams, back breaker, battery acid, beast, blotter, blue chairs, blue cheers, blue mist, brown dot, buttons, California triple dip, cube, dose, dot, Elvis, flat blues, gelatin, green wedge, hawk, looney toons, Lucy in the sky with diamonds, M and Ms, mellow yellow, mescal, microdot, mighty Quinn, mind detergent, Owsley acid, Owsley blue dot, pane, pearly gates, pink wedge, pink Owsley, purple Owsley, Sandoz's, strawberries, sugar cube, sunshine, Superman, uncle, vacation, wedding bells, window pane, and Zen.
Pathophysiology and Etiology
Most hallucinogens belong to 1 of the following 2 structurally distinct classes:
Indoles and tryptamines - Eg, LSD, psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
Phenylethylamines - Mescaline and MDMA
The most common route of exposure to LSD is oral; the drug is absorbed rapidly from the GI tract. Dermal absorption has not been well documented. LSD can be aerosolized and is absorbed by the lungs if the particle diameter is 5 micrometers or less.
Disruption of the serotonin system
Because of their structural similarity to serotonin and their intrinsic potency, hallucinogens disrupt the balanced functioning of the serotonin system.[3, 6]
Hallucinogens have a high affinity for serotonin (5-HT) receptors, at which LSD exhibits agonist and antagonist properties.
The 5-HT2A receptor plays a major role in the modulation of sensory signals and is predominantly found in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, where hallucinogens have effects on cognition, mood, perception, and emotions ranging from fear to euphoria. These receptors are also thought to be responsible for the pathology and therapy of schizophrenia. Serotonin receptors found in the locus coeruleus are important for sensory modulation and are responsible for the sympathomimetic effects of the drug (hypertension, tachycardia, dizziness, loss of appetite, dry mouth, sweating, nausea, numbness, tremor).
Affinities to other serotonin receptors differ between the 2 hallucinogen classes, which makes attributing specific effects to a single 5-HT receptor subtype impossible. LSD also stimulates dopamine D2 receptors. This leads to a biphasic pharmacologic pattern of early serotoninlike effects (15-30 min after administration) and late mediated dopaminelike effects (60-90 min after administration). The relationship between the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems is not fully understood.[14, 15]
LSD is absorbed rapidly from the GI tract after oral administration, and early drug effects appear after 30-60 minutes. More profound psychoactive effects peak at 2-4 hours and some effects may last as long as 12 hours. A typical dose to obtain the desired effects ranges from 50-200 mcg. LSD is rapidly metabolized in the liver by N-demethylation, N-deethylation, and aromatic hydroxylation after oral ingestion. The LSD metabolites N-demethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), lysergic acid ethylamide (LAE), iso-LAE, mono-oxylated LSD, and hydroxylated LSD are excreted in the urine. The elimination half-life of LSD is 3-5 hours.
Although LSD does not cause physical or psychological addiction, users quickly develop a high degree of short-lived tolerance (tachyphylaxis), which is due to down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Long-term effects of chronic use can result in persistent psychosis and hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), so called “flashbacks." LSD remains one of the most potent mood-altering and perception-altering drugs.
Occurrence in the United States
Emergency department visits from patients with adverse reactions to hallucinogens are relatively uncommon. The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) estimated that in 2011, there were 1,252,500 emergency department visits for non–alcohol-related illicit drug use; of those, only 4819 visits (or 1.5 per 100,000 population) were related to LSD. This nonetheless represented an increase in the overall frequency of LSD-related visits, with an estimated 2146 LSD-related emergency department visits, or 0.7 per 100,000 population, having occurred in 2004. In 2014, the American Association of Poison Control Centers reported 520 single exposures.
Given the popularity of LSD as a club drug, emergency department visits for LSD intoxication often involve other drugs as well, such as MDMA.
Race- and sex-related demographics
In the United States, LSD is used predominantly by whites. While use by African Americans and Hispanics is less common, it has been reported in surveys of urban populations, being especially used in clubs and raves.
Males use LSD more frequently than do females. The typical LSD user is a risk-taking, white male in high school or college. However, a survey of women attending university-based ambulatory reproductive health clinics revealed that 13% had used LSD in the past. There was also an association between LSD and high-risk sexual behavior.
Adolescents and young adults are now the most frequent LSD users. Low cost (prices ranging from $2-5 per single dose or hit, with prices of $1 or less at wholesale lots), easy availability, alleged mind-expanding properties, and attractive paper designs make LSD especially intriguing to middle- and high-school students. Of LSD users seen in emergency departments, 50% are younger than 20 years.
In 2010, 6.4% of young Americans aged 18-25 years had used LSD at some time in their life, according to the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This was, however, a significant reduction from the beginning of the decade; in 2002, a reported 15.9% of Americans in that age group had used LSD.
The long-term prognosis for persons who use LSD is good provided that they stop using it, and most users voluntarily decrease or stop the use of the drug over time. LSD is not considered an addictive drug, because it does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior; however, LSD does produce a physiologic tolerance, requiring subsequent increased doses to achieve the same effect.
However, for those who use LSD chronically, there is the enhanced risk for schizophreniform psychosis and derangements in memory function, problem solving, and abstract thinking.
There have been no clinical reports of death caused by the direct effects of LSD.
Massive overdoses can cause the following:
The patient's altered perceptions can lead to behavioral toxicity, in which the patient does not appreciate the dangers in the environment and may be injured. Extreme agitation brought on by disturbing hallucinations has been known to lead to suicide or to unintentional death, as users have tried to flee from these drug-induced illusions.
Long-term complications from LSD use may include prolonged psychotic reactions, severe depression, or an exacerbation/unmasking of a preexisting psychiatric illness. LSD potentially may exacerbate comorbid conditions in elderly patients.
Despite early reports of LSD-related fetal malformations, inadequate evidence exists to establish causality.
HPPD and flashbacks
In hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), patients who are not intoxicated experience symptoms (flashbacks) that initially arose during the use of LSD. Flashbacks tend to occur during times of psychological stress and can last for minutes to hours. HPPD may last several months; however, some patients report these experiences for as long as 5 years, with many of these individuals having an underlying psychiatric illness.
Patients can have a combination of perceptual and visual disturbances during flashbacks, including the following:
Flashes of color
Impaired color perception
Terrifying illusions of people decomposing, crawling bugs, skulls, Satan's face superimposed on the faces of friends, or objects melting
Deaths caused by primary LSD effects have not been well documented. The lethal dose of LSD has been estimated to be 14,000 mcg. However, few cases of massive ingestions have been reported. Because of its large index of toxicity, patients must have access to unusually concentrated forms of LSD if they are to overdose. Occasional suicide attempts using LSD intoxication have been reported.
Counsel patients on the potential dangers of LSD use, including driving automobiles while intoxicated or combining LSD ingestion with ethanol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs.
Because the metabolism of LSD is not fully understood, HIV-positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy should be counseled to not use LSD, due to the possibility of adverse drug-drug interactions.
"Mind Over Matter," an educational tool, is designed to encourage young people in grades 5-9 to learn about the effects of drug abuse on the body and brain (see National Institute on Drug Abuse, Mind Over Matter).
For patient education information, see Substance Abuse.
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