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Erysipelas Workup

  • Author: Loretta Davis, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 29, 2016
 

Approach Considerations

In classic erysipelas, no laboratory workup is required for diagnosis or treatment. However, leukocytosis and elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common.[1, 15] Routine blood and tissue cultures are not cost-effective, because they have an extremely low yield and the results have minimal impact on management.

Imaging studies are not usually indicated and are of low yield. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy are helpful when early osteoarticular involvement is suspected. In this setting, standard radiographic findings typically are normal.

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Bacterial Cultures

Bacterial cultures are positive in only 5% of cases, and tissue Gram stain and culture are generally not helpful. However, bacterial cultures may be useful when the diagnosis is in question or when concern for bacteremia and metastatic infection exists.

Cultures may be of benefit in patients with prosthetic heart valves, other intravascular devices, artificial joints, and in immunocompromised or toxic-appearing patients. Bacterial cultures from the portal of entry may be most helpful, especially in persons with atypical clinical presentations.[16]

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Histologic Findings

The histologic hallmarks of erysipelas are marked dermal edema, vascular dilatation, and streptococcal invasion of lymphatics and tissues. This bacterial invasion results in a dermal inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. The epidermis is often secondarily involved. Rarely, bacterial invasion of local blood vessels may be seen.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Loretta Davis, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Medical College of Georgia

Loretta Davis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

John A Cole, MD Dermatologist, Private Practice, Valdosta, GA

John A Cole, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Keith Benbenisty, MD Consulting Staff, Associates in Dermatology, MDs, PA

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francis Counselman, MD Program Director, Chair, Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Francis Counselman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM), Norfolk Academy of Medicine, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP(EM), CSPQ Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary; Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, McGill University

Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP(EM), CSPQ is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Christen M Mowad, MD Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center

Christen M Mowad, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Dermatological Association, Noah Worcester Dermatological Society, Pennsylvania Academy of Dermatology, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, New York Academy of Medicine, and Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Reference Salary Employment

Michael J Wells, MD Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine

Michael J Wells, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, and Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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Well-demarcated, erythematous plaque of erysipelas. Courtesy of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Facial erysipelas exhibiting classic fiery-red plaque with raised, well-demarcated borders.
 
 
 
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