Gram-Negative Folliculitis Treatment & Management

Updated: Sep 19, 2016
  • Author: Mordechai M Tarlow, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Treatment

Medical Care

Treatment of gram-negative folliculitis includes the use of isotretinoin and systemic antibiotics. [10]

Isotretinoin offers the most effective cure for gram-negative folliculitis. [11, 12, 13]  It is a synthetic beta-carotene derivative that is highly effective when used in patients with severe nodulocystic acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Studies in patients with gram-negative folliculitis have demonstrated effective eradication of facial lesions and nasal carriage with isotretinoin, with an average clearance time of approximately 2-3 months. A low incidence of recurrence has been reported with this therapy. Isotretinoin has no antibiotic effect against the organisms causing gram-negative folliculitis. Several mechanisms have been proposed for its action, including sebum suppression, because all patients with this disease have severe seborrhea prior to isotretinoin treatment, and drying out of the mucous membranes, including the nasal mucosa, which is the reservoir for the organisms.

Systemic antibiotics were the mainstay of therapy for gram-negative folliculitis prior to the development of isotretinoin; the choice of antibiotic was dictated by antibiotic sensitivities. Topical therapy rarely works. The most effective antibiotics have come from the bacteriostatic group, which includes ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Reports have conflicted concerning the degree to which these medications can eradicate the carriage of gram-negative organisms and induce remission. Most studies describe recurring infection after therapy is discontinued, making antibiotic use largely a suppressive modality.

Gram-negative folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas organisms in whirlpools usually subsides spontaneously within 10 days without recurrence. In patients with facial folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas organisms associated with acne vulgaris, the infection clears when the source of the organism, external otitis, is cured. Acinetobacter baumannii folliculitis in the setting of AIDS has responded to intravenous treatment with ticarcillin-clavulanic acid.

Most patients have ordinary acne in addition to gram-negative folliculitis. Once the folliculitis has responded, residual acne must be treated by other methods, including retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide, cryotherapy, and other therapies.

Gram-negative folliculitis is relatively uncommon, and the general benefit from antibiotics far outweighs the occasional complication of folliculitis.