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Dermatologic Manifestations of Neurilemmoma (Schwannoma) Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Kara Melissa T Torres, MD, DPDS; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 21, 2015
 
 

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Kara Melissa T Torres, MD, DPDS Visiting Research Fellow, Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology

Kara Melissa T Torres, MD, DPDS is a member of the following medical societies: Philippine Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Lester F Libow, MD Dermatopathologist, South Texas Dermatopathology Laboratory

Lester F Libow, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Dermatopathology, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Günter Burg, MD Professor and Chairman Emeritus, Department of Dermatology, University of Zürich School of Medicine; Delegate of The Foundation for Modern Teaching and Learning in Medicine Faculty of Medicine, University of Zürich, Switzerland

Günter Burg, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Dermatological Association, International Society for Dermatologic Surgery, North American Clinical Dermatologic Society, and Pacific Dermatologic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Grace F Kao, MD Clinical Professor of Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and George Washington University Medical School; Director, Dermatopathology Section, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Affairs Maryland Healthcare System, Baltimore, Maryland

Grace F Kao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Dermatopathology, and International Society of Dermatopathology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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A schematic illustration of the essential microscopic features of a neurilemoma (schwannoma). A solid lesion arises within a nerve composed of a single fascicle (top). The tumor is composed of Schwann cell proliferation within the epineurium and peripherally displaced nerve fibers, resulting in nodular eccentric growth (middle). No capsule is formed in the early growth phase. The larger tumor (bottom) slightly increases the size of the parent nerve and eventually becomes separated from surrounding fascicles by a capsule formed from the perineurium and epineurium. Occasional axons are present.
A small, clinically freely movable neurilemoma found in the subcutaneous tissue. Note the pale-yellow, somewhat-translucent cut surface. The tumor also exhibits a slight nodular growth pattern on the cut surface. Courtesy of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles, Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System. Used with permission.
A larger neurilemoma (5 cm in diameter) arising from a peripheral nerve showing irregularly lobulated and secondary degenerative changes, ie, partly cystic with calcification (the so-called ancient change). Hemorrhage and opaque creamy-yellow areas of tumor are also seen on this cut surface.
Cut surface of an intradermal plexiform (nodular) variety of neurilemoma. The plexiform variants of neurilemoma are rare. The area of nodularity is clearly discernible. Courtesy of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles, Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System. Used with permission
A low-power photomicrograph of a dermal plexiform neurilemoma showing nodular aggregates of tumor cells and surrounding loose, myxomatous fibrous stroma. Hematoxylin and eosin stain at 50X magnification.
Photomicrograph of a neurilemoma from an area with a typical Antoni type A pattern. The palisaded benign Schwann cells show nuclear crowding, with cell processes radiating toward the centers of aggregated tumor cells. Inconspicuous loose fibrous stroma is present at the periphery. Hematoxylin and eosin stain at 150X magnification.
A photomicrograph showing a characteristic Verocay body of a neurilemoma, consisting of tight, discrete aggregates of spindle-shaped, palisaded nuclei with a central fibrillary area, representing collections of cytoplasmic processes of tumorous Schwann cells. Courtesy of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles, Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System. Used with permission.
Transmission electron micrograph of Antoni type A tumor tissue consisting of prominent arrays of Schwann cell processes with basement membrane substance coated on their surfaces. Note the centrally located nucleus with vesicular nuclear chromatin. Uranium acetate and lead citrate stain at 15,000X magnification.
A transmission electron micrograph of a Luse body, ie, typical collagen fibrils and adjacent basement substance. Note the long-spaced, 130-nm periodicity. Uranium acetate and lead citrate stain at 52,500X magnification. Courtesy of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles, Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System. Used with permission.
A photomicrograph of a dermal neurilemoma with anti–S-100 protein immunostaining. The tumorous Schwann cells exhibit uniformly positive staining. Immunoperoxidase stain at 150X magnification.
Solitary cutaneous plexiform neurilemoma shown on photomicrograph.
Management algorithm for schwannoma nerve graft.
 
 
 
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