Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Porokeratosis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Amarateedha H. Prak, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
Updated: May 09, 2016

Medical Care

The approach to treatment must be individualized, based on the size of the lesion and the anatomical location, the functional and aesthetic considerations, the risk of malignancy, and the patient's preference. Protection from the sun, use of emollients, and watchful observation for signs of malignant degeneration may be all that is needed for many patients. If lesions are widespread and medical treatment is desired, several medications have potential benefit.

Topical 5-fluorouracil

Topical 5-fluorouracil can induce remission in all forms of porokeratosis.[69, 70] Treatment must be continued until a brisk inflammatory reaction is obtained. Enhancement of penetration, which heightens the response, may be achieved by occlusion or the addition of topical tretinoin, tazarotene, or salicylic acid.[71] Recurrences may be seen.

Topical vitamin D-3 analogues

Both calcipotriol and tacalcitol have been shown to be effective after 3-6 months of treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP).[72, 73, 74]


Topical imiquimod cream has been shown to be effective for treating classic porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM).[75, 76]

Ingenol mebutate has shown efficacy in the treatment of porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM).[77]

Calcineurin inhibitors

Tacrolimus (0.1%) was shown to be effective for treating linear porokeratosis. A single case report showed complete resolution of associated pain, pruritus, and paresthesias, as well as cosmetic improvement.[78]

Topical retinoids

Topically applied retinoids (tretinoin, tazarotene) may be beneficial for improving the abnormality in keratinization that causes cornoid lamellation, thereby reducing the hyperkeratosis of the edge of the lesions. It is also thought to improve the percutaneous absorption of other topically applied medications, rendering them somewhat more effective.

Diclofenac gel

Diclofenac gel 3% (Solaraze), may be effective for DSAP.[79]

Oral retinoids

The use of oral retinoids (isotretinoin, etretinate, and acitretin) in patients who are immunosuppressed, who are at higher risk for malignant degeneration, may reduce the risk of carcinoma in porokeratotic lesions.

Oral isotretinoin at 20 mg daily combined with topical 5-fluorouracil is reported to be effective for DSAP and porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata (PPPD), but it causes burning, itching, and painful erosions.

Prior to the removal of etretinate from the US market, conflicting reports of etretinate efficacy were published. Reports of etretinate efficacy are conflicting. Etretinate at doses of 75 mg/d for 1 week followed by 50 mg/d was shown to be helpful in linear porokeratosis and symptomatic PM. Higher doses of 1 mg/kg/d were reported to exacerbate lesions of DSAP after 4-6 weeks of treatment.[80] Even when etretinate therapy is successful, relapses may occur. Digitate keratoses were reported to develop after the use of etretinate for DSAP.[81]

Acitretin, a second-generation monoaromatic retinoid that is the active metabolite of etretinate, is likely to have results similar to those of etretinate. A case of systematized linear porokeratosis with good response to acitretin has been reported.[82, 83]


Surgical Care

Surgical treatment is essential for porokeratosis lesions that have undergone malignant transformation. No studies showing the value of prophylactic nonexcisional surgical treatment in reducing the incidence of malignancy within porokeratosis have been reported. Surgical modalities other than excision may improve cosmesis and/or function but are frequently followed by relapses.

Excision is most appropriate when malignant degeneration develops.

Cryotherapy is helpful for porokeratosis lesions with minimally raised cornoid lamellae, such as DSAP and PPPD. It is a minimally invasive method of inducing resolution for large numbers of lesions.

Electrodesiccation and curettage can be used to treat small lesions or when cryosurgery is ineffective.

Diamond fraise dermabrasion has been used with conflicting reports of efficacy. It was effective in improving the appearance of linear porokeratosis in one patient, but a child with a large PM lesion had recurrence after treatment.[84]

Various types of laser therapy have been used. A rapid recurrence reportedly followed carbon dioxide laser ablation. The 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser was shown to help one patient with linear porokeratosis. Another patient with PM with an underlying hemangioma had good improvement of the hemangioma but no change in the porokeratosis after treatment. The frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was shown to be helpful for one patient with disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP). Two cases of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis were successfully treated with the 1927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser.[85] The Q-switched ruby laser has been reported to be effective in the treatment of DSAP and PM. Benefits of laser therapy include convenience and safety, with nearly no downtime or morbidity associated with pigment or textural changes.[85, 86, 87]

Ultrasonic surgical aspiration was shown to be effective in the treatment of vulvar porokeratosis in one patient.

Photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate has been reported to be successful for DSAP and linear porokeratosis.[88]



The most important complication to watch for is the development of cutaneous malignancy. Functional impairment due to involvement of critical anatomical locations may develop. Prophylactic excision could be considered in appropriate situations.


Long-Term Monitoring

Regularly monitoring patients for the development of malignant transformation is essential, especially in the setting of immunosuppression. Squamous cell or basal cell carcinomas can be aggressive in patients who are immunosuppressed.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Amarateedha H. Prak, MD Naval Flight Surgeon, Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton

Amarateedha H. Prak, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Aerospace Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Kristina Marie Dela Rosa, MD Dermatologist, Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton

Kristina Marie Dela Rosa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA

Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Texas Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey P Callen, MD Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Chief, Division of Dermatology, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Jeffrey P Callen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: XOMA; Biogen/IDEC; Novartis; Janssen Biotech, Abbvie, CSL pharma<br/>Received honoraria from UpToDate for author/editor; Received honoraria from JAMA Dermatology for associate editor and intermittent author; Received royalty from Elsevier for book author/editor; Received dividends from trust accounts, but I do not control these accounts, and have directed our managers to divest pharmaceutical stocks as is fiscally prudent from Stock holdings in various trust accounts include some pharmaceutical companies and device makers for i inherited these trust accounts; for: Celgene; Pfizer; 3M; Johnson and Johnson; Merck; Abbott Laboratories; AbbVie; Procter and Gamble; Amgen.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Linda V Spencer, MD Spencer Dermatology Associates, LLC

Linda V Spencer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Dermatology Foundation, American Medical Association, Indiana State Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Andrea Leigh Zaenglein, MD Professor of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Department of Dermatology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine

Andrea Leigh Zaenglein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Galderma for consulting; Received consulting fee from Valeant for consulting; Received consulting fee from Promius for consulting; Received consulting fee from Anacor for consulting; Received grant/research funds from Stiefel for investigator; Received grant/research funds from Astellas for investigator; Received grant/research funds from Ranbaxy for other; Received consulting fee from Ranbaxy for consulting.


The view(s) expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Navy Medical Department, the U.S. Navy Office of the Surgeon General, the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

  1. Biswas A. Cornoid lamellation revisited: apropos of porokeratosis with emphasis on unusual clinicopathological variants. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015 Feb. 37 (2):145-55. [Medline].

  2. Ma Y, Li C, Wu J, Cui P, Lin L, Feng S. Coexistence of porokeratosis ptychotropica with porokeratosis of Mibelli in a Chinese man. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2015 Aug. 32 (4):307-9. [Medline].

  3. Lanka P, Lanka LR, Manivachagam D. Punctate Porokeratosis Palmaris et Plantaris. Indian J Dermatol. 2015 May-Jun. 60 (3):284-6. [Medline].

  4. Wallner JS, Fitzpatrick JE, Brice SL. Verrucous porokeratosis of Mibelli on the buttocks mimicking psoriasis. Cutis. 2003 Nov. 72(5):391-3. [Medline].

  5. Walsh SN, Hurt MA, Santa Cruz DJ. Porokeratoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Dec. 31(12):1897-901. [Medline].

  6. Goddard DS, Rogers M, Frieden IJ, et al. Widespread porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus: clinical features and proposal of a new name unifying porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus and porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Dec. 61(6):1060.e1-14. [Medline].

  7. Kanzaki T, Miwa N, Kobayashi T, Ogawa S. Eruptive pruritic papular porokeratosis. J Dermatol. 1992 Feb. 19(2):109-12. [Medline].

  8. Kanekura T, Yoshii N. Eruptive pruritic papular porokeratosis: a pruritic variant of porokeratosis. J Dermatol. 2006 Nov. 33(11):813-6. [Medline].

  9. Tan TS, Tallon B. Pigmented Porokeratosis. A Further Variant?. Am J Dermatopathol. 2016 Mar. 38 (3):218-21. [Medline].

  10. Trikha R, Wile A, King J, Ward KH, Brodell RT. Punctate follicular porokeratosis: clinical and pathologic features. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015 Nov. 37 (11):e134-6. [Medline].

  11. Fernandez-Flores A. Small lesions of porokeratosis show a normal proliferation rate with MIB-1. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat. 2008 Mar. 17(1):22-5. [Medline].

  12. Kamata Y, Maejima H, Watarai A, Saito N, Katsuoka K, Takeda A. Expression of bleomycin hydrolase in keratinization disorders. Arch Dermatol Res. 2012 Jan. 304(1):31-8. [Medline].

  13. Murase J, Gilliam AC. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis co-existing with linear and verrucous porokeratosis in an elderly woman: Update on the genetics and clinical expression of porokeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Nov. 63(5):886-91. [Medline].

  14. Xia JH, Yang YF, Deng H, Tang BS, Tang DS, He YG. Identification of a locus for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis at chromosome 12q23.2-24.1. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Jun. 114(6):1071-4. [Medline].

  15. Xia K, Deng H, Xia JH, Zheng D, Zhang HL, Lu CY. A novel locus (DSAP2) for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis maps to chromosome 15q25.1-26.1. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Oct. 147(4):650-4. [Medline].

  16. Liu P, Zhang S, Yao Q, Liu X, Wang X, Huang C. Identification of a genetic locus for autosomal dominant disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis on chromosome 1p31.3-p31.1. Hum Genet. 2008 Jun. 123(5):507-13. [Medline].

  17. Luan J, Niu Z, Zhang J, Crosby ME, Zhang Z, Chu X. A novel locus for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis maps to chromosome 16q24.1-24.3. Hum Genet. 2011 Mar. 129(3):329-34. [Medline].

  18. Wei S, Yang S, Lin D, Li M, Zhang X, Bu L. A novel locus for disseminated superficial porokeratosis maps to chromosome 18p11.3. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Nov. 123(5):872-5. [Medline].

  19. Wei SC, Yang S, Li M, Song YX, Zhang XQ, Bu L. Identification of a locus for porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata to a 6.9-cM region at chromosome 12q24.1-24.2. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Aug. 149(2):261-7. [Medline].

  20. Happle R. Mibelli revisited: a case of type 2 segmental porokeratosis from 1893. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jan. 62(1):136-8. [Medline].

  21. Levinsohn JL, McNiff JM, Antaya RJ, Choate KA. A Somatic p.G45E GJB2 Mutation Causing Porokeratotic Eccrine Ostial and Dermal Duct Nevus. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jun. 151 (6):638-41. [Medline].

  22. Rodriguez EA, Jakubowicz S, Chinchilla DA, Carril A, Viglioglia PA. Porokeratosis of Mibelli and HIV-infection. Int J Dermatol. 1996 Jun. 35(6):402-4. [Medline].

  23. Nakamura M, Fukamachi S, Tokura Y. Acute onset disseminated superficial porokeratosis associated with exacerbation of diabetes mellitus due to development of anti-insulin antibodies. Dermatoendocrinol. 2010 Jan. 2(1):17-8. [Medline].

  24. Hunt SJ, Sharra WG, Abell E. Linear and punctate porokeratosis associated with end-stage liver disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Nov. 25(5 Pt 2):937-9. [Medline].

  25. Cannavo SP, Borgia F, Adamo B, Guarneri B. Simultaneous development and parallel course of disseminated superficial porokeratosis and ovarian cancer: Coincidental association or true paraneoplastic syndrome?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Apr. 58(4):657-60. [Medline].

  26. Kono T, Kobayashi H, Ishii M, Nishiguchi S, Taniguchi S. Synchronous development of disseminated superficial porokeratosis and hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Nov. 43(5 Pt 2):966-8. [Medline].

  27. Raychaudhuri SP, Smoller BR. Porokeratosis in immunosuppressed and nonimmunosuppressed patients. Int J Dermatol. 1992 Nov. 31(11):781-2. [Medline].

  28. Herranz P, Pizarro A, De Lucas R, Robayna MG, Rubio FA, Sanz A. High incidence of porokeratosis in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol. 1997 Feb. 136(2):176-9. [Medline].

  29. Alexis AF, Busam K, Myskowski PL. Porokeratosis of Mibelli following bone marrow transplantation. Int J Dermatol. 2006 Apr. 45(4):361-5. [Medline].

  30. Komorowski RA, Clowry LJ. Porokeratosis of mibelli in transplant recipients. Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 Jan. 91(1):71-4. [Medline].

  31. Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Faure M, Claudy A. Porokeratosis and immunosuppression. Eur J Dermatol. 1998 Oct-Nov. 8(7):459-65. [Medline].

  32. Rothman IL, Wirth PB, Klaus MV. Porokeratosis of Mibelli following heart transplant. Int J Dermatol. 1992 Jan. 31(1):52-4. [Medline].

  33. Sertznig P, von Felbert V, Megahed M. Porokeratosis: present concepts. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012 Apr. 26(4):404-12. [Medline].

  34. Gilead L, Guberman D, Zlotogorski A, et al. Immunosuppression-induced porokeratosis of Mibelli: Complete regression of lesions upon cessation of immunosuppressive therapy. J EurAcad Dermatol Venereol. 1995. 5:170.

  35. Tsambaos D, Spiliopoulos T. Disseminated superficial porokeratosis: complete remission subsequent to discontinuation of immunosuppression. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 Apr. 28(4):651-2. [Medline].

  36. Yazkan F, Turk BG, Dereli T, Kazandi AC. Porokeratosis of Mibelli induced by topical corticosteroid. J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Jul. 33(7):516-8. [Medline].

  37. Nova MP, Goldberg LJ, Mattison T, Halperin A. Porokeratosis arising in a burn scar. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Aug. 25(2 Pt 2):354-6. [Medline].

  38. James WD, Rodman OG. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in porokeratosis of mibelli. Int J Dermatol. 1986 Jul-Aug. 25(6):389-91. [Medline].

  39. Sasson M, Krain AD. Porokeratosis and cutaneous malignancy. A review. Dermatol Surg. 1996 Apr. 22(4):339-42. [Medline].

  40. Seishima M, Izumi T, Oyama Z, Maeda M. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from lesions of porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata. Eur J Dermatol. 2000 Aug. 10(6):478-80. [Medline].

  41. Otsuka F, Umebayashi Y, Watanabe S, Kawashima M, Hamanaka S. Porokeratosis large skin lesions are susceptible to skin cancer development: histological and cytological explanation for the susceptibility. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1993. 119(7):395-400. [Medline].

  42. Magee JW, McCalmont TH, LeBoit PE. Overexpression of p53 tumor suppressor protein in porokeratosis. Arch Dermatol. 1994 Feb. 130(2):187-90. [Medline].

  43. Ninomiya Y, Urano Y, Yoshimoto K, Iwahana H, Sasaki S, Arase S. p53 gene mutation analysis in porokeratosis and porokeratosis-associated squamous cell carcinoma. J Dermatol Sci. 1997 Mar. 14(3):173-8. [Medline].

  44. Sasaki S, Urano Y, Nakagawa K, Nagae H, Nakanishi H, Arase S. Linear porokeratosis with multiple squamous cell carcinomas: study of p53 expression in porokeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol. 1996 Jun. 134(6):1151-3. [Medline].

  45. Urano Y, Sasaki S, Ninomiya Y, Oura H, Arase S. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 tumor suppressor protein in porokeratosis. J Dermatol. 1996 May. 23(5):365-8. [Medline].

  46. Arranz-Salas I, Sanz-Trelles A, Ojeda DB. p53 alterations in porokeratosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2003 Aug. 30(7):455-8. [Medline].

  47. Ramesh V, Misra RS, Mahaur BS. Pseudoainhum in porokeratosis of Mibelli. Cutis. 1992 Feb. 49(2):129-30. [Medline].

  48. Silver SG, Crawford RI. Fatal squamous cell carcinoma arising from transplant-associated porokeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Nov. 49(5):931-3. [Medline].

  49. Sawai T, Hayakawa H, Danno K, Miyauchi H, Uehara M. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from giant porokeratosis: a case with extensive metastasis and hypercalcemia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Mar. 34(3):507-9. [Medline].

  50. Leow YH, Soon YH, Tham SN. A report of 31 cases of porokeratosis at the National Skin Centre. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1996 Nov. 25(6):837-41. [Medline].

  51. Raychaudhury T, Valsamma DP. Indian J Dermatol VenereolLeprol. Giant porokeratosis. 2011. 77:601.

  52. Robinson JB, Im DD, Jockle G, Rosenshein NB. Vulvar porokeratosis: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1999 Apr. 18(2):169-73. [Medline].

  53. Neri I, Marzaduri S, Passarini B, Patrizi A. Genital porokeratosis of Mibelli. Genitourin Med. 1995 Dec. 71(6):410-1. [Medline].

  54. Koley S, Sarkar J, Choudhary S, Dhara S, Choudhury M, Bhattacharya S. Different morphological variants of hypertrophic porokeratosis and disseminated lesions of porokeratosis of Mibelli: a rare co-existence. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011 Mar-Apr. 77(2):199-202. [Medline].

  55. Thomas C, Ogboli MI, Carr RA, Charles-Holmes R. Hypertrophic perianal porokeratosis in association with superficial actinic porokeratosis of the leg. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Nov. 28(6):676-7. [Medline].

  56. Jang KA, Choi JH, Sung KJ, Moon KC, Koh JK. The hyperkeratotic variant of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP). Int J Dermatol. 1999 Mar. 38(3):204-6. [Medline].

  57. BENCINI, PL, TARANTINO, A, GRIMALT, R., et al. Undefined. British Journal of Dermatology,. 1995. 132:74–78.

  58. Murase J, Gilliam AC. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis co-existing with linear and verrucous porokeratosis in an elderly woman: Update on the genetics and clinical expression of porokeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Nov. 63(5):886-91. [Medline].

  59. Patrizi A, Passarini B, Minghetti G, Masina M. Porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata: an unusual clinical presentation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989 Aug. 21(2 Pt 2):415-8. [Medline].

  60. Marschalkó M, SomlaiB.Porokeratosis plantaris, palmaris, et. disseminata. Arch Dermatol. 1986 Aug. 122(8):890-1.

  61. Tallon B, Blumental G, Bhawan J. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a lesser-known variant. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Dec. 34(8):e895-7. [Medline].

  62. McGuigan K, Shurman D, Campanelli C, Lee JB. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a clinically distinct variant of porokeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Mar. 60(3):501-3. [Medline].

  63. Flanagan N, Boyadjiev SA, Harper J, Kyne L, Earley M, Watson R. Familial craniosynostosis, anal anomalies, and porokeratosis: CAP syndrome. J Med Genet. 1998 Sep. 35(9):763-6. [Medline].

  64. Hartman R, Rizzo C, Patel R, Kamino H, Shupack JL. Porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata or a disseminated late-onset variant of porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal ductal nevus (PEODDN) with follicular involvement. Dermatol Online J. 2009. 15(8):8. [Medline].

  65. Parekh V, Kabihting FD, Junkins-Hopkins JM. Hyperkeratotic variant of porokeratosis in a patient with Hepatitis C virus infection and a concomitant immunosuppressed state. Dermatol Online J. 2015 Nov 18. 21 (11):[Medline].

  66. Zaballos P, Puig S, Malvehy J. Dermoscopy of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Nov. 140(11):1410. [Medline].

  67. Uhara H, Kamijo F, Okuyama R, Saida T. Open pores with plugs in porokeratosis clearly visualized with the dermoscopic furrow ink test: report of 3 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2011 Jul. 147(7):866-8. [Medline].

  68. Reed C, Reddy R, Brodell RT. Diagnosing porokeratosis of Mibelli every time: a novel biopsy technique to maximize histopathologic confirmation. Cutis. 2016 Mar. 97 (3):188-90. [Medline].

  69. Sander CA, Pfeiffer C, Kligman AM, Plewig G. Chemotherapy for disseminated actinic keratoses with 5-fluorouracil and isotretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Feb. 36(2 Pt 1):236-8. [Medline].

  70. Shelley WB, Shelley ED. Disseminated superficial porokeratosis: rapid therapeutic response to 5-fluorouracil. Cutis. 1983 Aug. 32(2):139-40. [Medline].

  71. Danby W. Treatment of porokeratosis with fluorouracil and salicylic acid under occlusion. Dermatol Online J. 2003 Dec. 9(5):33. [Medline].

  72. Böhm M, Luger TA, Bonsmann G. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis: treatment with topical tacalcitol. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Mar. 40(3):479-80. [Medline].

  73. Thiers BH. The use of topical calcipotriene/calcipotriol in conditions other than plaque-type psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Sep. 37(3 Pt 2):S69-71. [Medline].

  74. Bakardzhiev I, Kavaklieva S, Pehlivanov G. Successful treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis with calcipotriol. Int J Dermatol. 2011 Jul 5. [Medline].

  75. Harrison S, Sinclair R. Porokeratosis of Mibelli: successful treatment with topical 5% imiquimod cream. Australas J Dermatol. 2003 Nov. 44(4):281-3. [Medline].

  76. Gracia-Cazaña T, Vera-Álvarez J, García-Patos V, Gilaberte Y. Imiquimod and Photodynamic Therapy Are Useful in the Treatment of Porokeratosis in Children with Bone Marrow Transplantation. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Jul 29. [Medline].

  77. Kindem S, Serra-Guillén C, Sorní G, Guillén C, Sanmartín O. Treatment of porokeratosis of Mibelli with ingenol mebutate: a possible new therapeutic option. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jan. 151 (1):85-6. [Medline].

  78. Parks AC, Conner KJ, Armstrong CA. Long-term clearance of linear porokeratosis with tacrolimus, 0.1%, ointment. JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Feb. 150 (2):194-6. [Medline].

  79. Marks S, Varma R, Cantrell W, Chen SC, Gold M, Muellenhoff M. Diclofenac sodium 3% gel as a potential treatment for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Jan. 23(1):42-5. [Medline].

  80. Knobler RM, Neumann RA. Exacerbation of porokeratosis during etretinate therapy. Acta Derm Venereol. 1990. 70(4):319-22. [Medline].

  81. Carmichael AJ, Tan CY. Digitate keratoses--a complication of etretinate used in the treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1990 Sep. 15(5):370-1. [Medline].

  82. Hong JB, Hsiao CH, Chu CY. Systematized linear porokeratosis: a rare variant of diffuse porokeratosis with good response to systemic acitretin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Apr. 60(4):713-5. [Medline].

  83. Garg T, Ramchander, Varghese B, Barara M, Nangia A. Generalized linear porokeratosis: a rare entity with excellent response to acitretin. Dermatol Online J. 2011. 17(5):3. [Medline].

  84. Cohen PR, Held JL, Katz BE. Linear porokeratosis: successful treatment with diamond fraise dermabrasion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Nov. 23(5 Pt 2):975-7. [Medline].

  85. Ross NA, Rosenbaum LE, Saedi N, Arndt KA, Dover JS. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis improved with fractional 1927-nm laser treatments. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016 Feb. 18 (1):53-5. [Medline].

  86. Itoh M, Nakagawa H. Successful treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis with Q-switched ruby laser. J Dermatol. 2007 Dec. 34(12):816-20. [Medline].

  87. Liu HT. Treatment of lichen amyloidosis (LA) and disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP) with frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2000 Oct. 26(10):958-62. [Medline].

  88. Cavicchini S, Tourlaki A. Successful treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis with methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy. J Dermatolog Treat. 2006. 17(3):190-1. [Medline].

Porokeratosis of Mibelli on the lower leg in a renal transplant recipient.
Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis on the lower legs of a female patient.
A 42-year-old woman with multiple lesions on the pretibial aspects of the legs.
A young boy with a linear lesion of porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus extending onto the nailbed, causing pterygium formation.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.