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Griscelli Syndrome Treatment & Management

  • Author: Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 19, 2016
 

Medical Care

Medical treatment of patients with Griscelli syndrome is difficult. The only real treatment for the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndromes of which Griscelli syndrome is a part is stem cell transplantation. This has received evidence-based support in an Italian study of 61 patients with Griscelli syndrome) reported in 2009.[44] Similarly, a Swedish study with 5 patients with Griscelli syndrome type 2 responded to stem cell transplantation.[45]

For patients with defects in RAB27A, antibiotics and antiviral agents are used with mixed effects. Similarly, medications may not control the neurologic symptoms of the disease.

In Griscelli syndrome related to MYO5A mutations, no specific treatment exists because the defect is in the brain rather than in the blood cells as in cases caused by the RAB27A mutation. The severe neurologic impairment and retarded psychomotor development do not improve with time.

Only bone marrow transplantation offers a possibility of extended survival. In preparation for transplantation, particularly in patients with Griscelli syndrome caused by a mutation in RAB27A, various immunosuppressive regimens have been used to attenuate hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) (accelerated phase).

Mehdizadeh and Zamani[46] noted a 10-year-old boy with Griscelli syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome, which was controlled with immunosuppressive therapy.

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Surgical Care

Bone marrow transplantation is the most effective treatment of this condition. Bone marrow transplantation is the only possible cure for Griscelli syndrome.[47] Even a low number of donor cells in the patient's bone marrow can be sufficient to control symptoms of Griscelli syndrome in cases caused by mutations in RAB27A.

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Consultations

The specialists who are most often initially consulted for treatment of this condition are geneticists, hematologists, dermatologists, neurologists, and pediatricians. Once a diagnosis is made, such specialists should consider the need for chemotherapy in patients and how to proceed with bone marrow transplantation.

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Diet

No special diet is recommended for patients with Griscelli syndrome.

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Activity

Because patients with Griscelli syndrome can have severe neurologic and immunologic problems, their activities are usually limited. For patients, avoiding interactions that expose them to infections is important. Because patients with Griscelli syndrome can have seizures that are difficult to control, they must be actively monitored.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Weil Cornell Medical College; Consulting Staff, Department of Dermatology, St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; Assistant Attending Dermatologist, New York Presbyterian Hospital; Assistant Attending Dermatologist, Lenox Hill Hospital, North Shore-LIJ Health System; Private Practice

Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Abbvie<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Optigenex<br/>Received salary from Optigenex for employment.

Coauthor(s)

Ann M Johnson, MD Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Director, Body MRI, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Ann M Johnson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Roentgen Ray Society, Radiological Society of North America, Society for Pediatric Radiology, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

David F Butler, MD Section Chief of Dermatology, Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System; Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Founding Chair, Department of Dermatology, Scott and White Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Alpha Omega Alpha, Association of Military Dermatologists, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey J Miller, MD Associate Professor of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Staff Dermatologist, Pennsylvania State Milton S Hershey Medical Center

Jeffrey J Miller, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology, Association of Professors of Dermatology, North American Hair Research Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Julie C Harper, MD Assistant Program Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Julie C Harper, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Stiefel for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Allergan for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Intendis for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Coria for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Sanofi-Aventis for speaking and teaching.

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