Nicotine Stomatitis

Updated: Sep 23, 2016
  • Author: Dana Gelman Keiles, DMD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
  • Print
Overview

Background

Nicotinic stomatitis (smoker's palate), a lesion of the palatal mucosa, has been described in the literature since 1926. In 1941, Thoma named the lesion stomatitis nicotine because it is almost exclusively observed in individuals who smoke tobacco. [1] The concentrated heat stream of smoke from tobacco products causes nicotine stomatitis. [2, 3] These mucosal changes are most often observed in pipe and reverse cigarette smokers and less often in cigarette and cigar smokers. Generally, it is asymptomatic or mildly irritating. Patients typically report that they are either unaware of the lesion or have had it for many years without changes. See the image below

Classic nicotine stomatitis. Note the speckled whi Classic nicotine stomatitis. Note the speckled white and red appearance from the hyperkeratosis and minor salivary gland openings.
Next:

Pathophysiology

Nicotine stomatitis affects the oral mucosa of the hard palate posterior to the rugae and the adjacent soft palate. [4, 5]

Previous
Next:

Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

The incidence of nicotinic stomatitis in the United States is unknown. However, approximately 40 million Americans smoke. [6]

International

A large study in Saudi Arabia showed that 29.6% of all smokers had nicotine stomatitis and that 60% of pipe smokers had nicotinic stomatitis. See also studies of smokers in India, [7] Turin, [8] and China. [9]

Race

The appearance of nicotine stomatitis is related directly to the population that smokes tobacco products.

Sex

Men and women who smoke tobacco products are affected equally by nicotinic stomatitis. Women smoke pipes less often than men; therefore, nicotinic stomatitis is less prevalent in women.

Age

Nicotinic stomatitis is related to duration, intensity, and types of smoking and is not related to the age of the smoker. [10]

Previous
Next:

Prognosis

Nicotine stomatitis is generally a reversible lesion once the irritant is removed. The prognosis for nicotinic stomatitis is excellent. Although nicotine stomatitis is caused by smoking tobacco products, it is generally not associated with dysplastic or malignant changes. [11] The exception to this is in individuals who reverse smoke. Reverse smoking is common in some parts of the Caribbean and Southeast Asia. The concentrated heat and chemicals increase the potential for malignant change. [12]

Previous
Next:

Patient Education

Educate patients with nicotinic stomatitis concerning the dangers of tobacco use. Many cigar and pipe smokers believe that they are not at risk for cancer because they do not inhale.

Previous