The peripheral giant cell granuloma has an unknown etiology, with some dispute as to whether this lesion represents a reactive or neoplastic process. However, most authorities believe peripheral giant cell granuloma is a reactive lesion. See the image below.
Peripheral giant cell granuloma is uncommon but not rare. Precise estimates of its incidence and prevalence in the general population have not been definitively determined.
No known racial predilection is associated with peripheral giant cell granuloma.
One large recent study showed essentially no sex predilection (52% female vs. 48% male).
A wide age range of patients can be affected, although most patients are in the fifth to seventh decades of life at the time of diagnosis of this lesion. One institutional biopsy service reported the mean age of 235 patients with peripheral giant cell granuloma to be 46 years, with a range from 6-88 years.
Peripheral giant cell granuloma has an excellent prognosis. A recurrence rate of 10-20% has been reported in most series; however, recurrences are typically managed easily with additional surgery. Some investigators have suggested that peripheral giant cell granulomas that develop in association with dental implants seem to have a higher risk for recurrence.