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Angioendotheliomatosis Medication

  • Author: Anna Zalewska, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 10, 2014
 

Medication Summary

No specific treatment exists for the reactive form. Therapy is focused on the underlying disease, if any. For the malignant form, promptly initiate chemotherapy after making the diagnosis.

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Antineoplastics, Other

Class Summary

Chemotherapy protocols similar to that applied in classic lymphoma or leukemia treatment are a widely accepted method of medical intervention.

Cyclophosphamide

 

Cyclophosphamide is chemically related to nitrogen mustards. As an alkylating agent, the mechanism of action of the active metabolites may involve cross-linking of DNA, which may interfere with growth of normal and neoplastic cells. Cyclophosphamide may be administered at 50-100 mg/m2/d PO or 400-1000 mg/m2 PO in divided doses every 4-5 days; alternatively, administer 400-1800 mg/m2 (30-40 mg/kg) IV in divided doses over 2-5 days; this may be repeated at 2- to 4-week intervals; 10-15 mg/kg IV q7-10d or 3-5 mg/kg bid.

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

 

Doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II and produces free radicals, which may cause the destruction of DNA. The combination of these 2 events can, in turn, inhibit the growth of neoplastic cells. Doxorubicin may be administered at 60-75 mg/m2 IV as a single dose; repeat q21d. Alternatively, administer 20-30 mg/m2/d IV for 2-3 d; repeat in 4 weeks in adults. In children, it may be administered at 35-75 mg/m2 IV as a single dose; repeat q21d. Alternatively, administer 20-30 mg/m2 IV qwk.

Vincristine (Vincasar PFS)

 

The mechanism of action is uncertain, but it may involve a decrease in reticuloendothelial cell function or an increase in platelet production; however, neither of these mechanisms would fully explain the effect in TTP and HUS. Vincristine may be administered at 2 mg IV push in adults. Administer 1.4 mg/m2 IV push, not to exceed 2 mg, in children.

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents are used for their immunosuppressant effects.

Prednisone

 

Prednisone is an immunosuppressant for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. It may decrease inflammation by reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity. Prednisone stabilizes lysosomal membranes and suppresses lymphocyte and antibody production. It may also cause profound and varied metabolic effects, particularly in relation to salt, water, and glucose tolerance. Alternative corticosteroids may be used in equivalent dosages.

Prednisone may be administered at 5-60 mg/d PO qd or divided bid/qid; taper over 2 weeks as symptoms resolve in adults. In children, it may be administered at 4-5 mg/m2/d PO; alternatively, administer 0.05-2 mg/kg PO divided bid/qid; taper over 2 weeks as symptoms resolve.

Prednisolone (Orapred, Pediapred, Millipred)

 

Prednisolone is an immunosuppressant for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. It may decrease inflammation by reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity. Prednisolone stabilizes lysosomal membranes and suppresses lymphocyte and antibody production. It may also cause profound and varied metabolic effects, particularly in relation to salt, water, and glucose tolerance. Alternative corticosteroids may be used in equivalent dosages.

Prednisolone may be administered at 5-60 mg/d PO qd or divided bid/qid; taper over 2 weeks as symptoms resolve in adults. In children, prednisolone may be administered at 4-5 mg/m2/d PO; alternatively, administer 0.05-2 mg/kg PO divided bid/qid; taper over 2 weeks as symptoms resolve.

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Retinoid-like Agents

Class Summary

Decreased cohesiveness of abnormal hyperproliferative keratinocytes may reduce potential for malignant degeneration. Retinoids modulate keratinocyte differentiation and have been shown to reduce risk of skin cancer formation.

Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, Sotret)

 

Isotretinoin is an oral agent that treats serious dermatologic conditions. Isotretinoin is the synthetic 13-cis isomer of the naturally occurring tretinoin (trans -retinoic acid). Both agents are structurally related to vitamin A. Isotretinoin decreases sebaceous gland size and sebum production. It may inhibit sebaceous gland differentiation and abnormal keratinization.

A US Food and Drug Administration–mandated registry is now in place for all individuals prescribing, dispensing, or taking isotretinoin. For more information on this registry, see iPLEDGE. This registry aims to further decrease the risk of pregnancy and other unwanted and potentially dangerous adverse effects during a course of isotretinoin therapy.

Single cases of diffuse dermal angiomatosis have responded to treatment. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg is suggested.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Anna Zalewska, MD, PhD Professor of Dermatology and Venereology, Psychodermatology Department, Chair of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Paul Krusinski, MD Director of Dermatology, Fletcher Allen Health Care; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine

Paul Krusinski, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Arash Taheri, MD Research Fellow, Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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