Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Thrombophlebitis Medication

  • Author: Melanie D Palm, MD, MBA, FAAD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
Updated: Sep 24, 2014

Medication Summary

Anticoagulation is necessary only in cases of extensive thrombophlebitis or propagation into the deep venous system. For additional drugs, see the Medication section in Thromboembolism.



Class Summary

These agents inhibit thrombin, which prevents the formation and/or extension of thrombus and allows recanalization of the blood vessel over time. Oral anticoagulants are the mainstay of long-term outpatient management. Oral anticoagulants competitively interfere with vitamin K metabolism, decreasing plasma concentrations of the active forms of factors II, VII, IX, and X (also proteins C and S). Infants and children tend to require higher maintenance doses and more frequent dosage adjustments than adults.

Heparin (Hep-Lock, Liquaemin)


Usually started as part of initial treatment of thromboembolism. Dose is titrated to maintain aPTT at 60-85 sec. Monitor CBC count, PT, and aPTT daily once aPTT is at therapeutic value. Stopping infusion is usually sufficient for reversal. If rapid reversal is needed, administer protamine (dose based on amount of heparin received in previous 2 h); if < 30 min since last heparin dose, administer 1 mg/100 mg heparin received to maximum of 50 mg per dose IV over 5 mg/min.

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)


Prevents DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications.

Enhances inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin by increasing antithrombin III activity. In addition, preferentially increases inhibition of factor Xa. Average duration of treatment is 7-14 d. Greater bioavailability and longer half-life after SC injection than unfractionated heparin. With enoxaparin, monitor CBC count, including platelet count, and monitor effect with anti–factor Xa levels.

Dalteparin (Fragmin)


Enhances inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin by increasing antithrombin III activity. In addition, preferentially increases inhibition of factor Xa. Average duration of treatment is 7-14 d.

Tinzaparin (Innohep)


Enhances inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin by increasing antithrombin III activity. In addition, preferentially increases inhibition of factor Xa. Average duration of treatment is 7-14 d.

Warfarin (Coumadin)


Used for long-term anticoagulation. Warfarin has a half-life of 36-42 h. More difficult to monitor PT and INR in children because of variability in dietary vitamin K intake, effects of other medications, and age; monitor CBC and platelet counts and INR.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Melanie D Palm, MD, MBA, FAAD Director, Art of Skin MD; Assistant Volunteer Clinical Professor, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine; Affiliate Physician, Scripps Encinitas Memorial Hospital

Melanie D Palm, MD, MBA, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Women's Dermatologic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Zoltan Trizna, MD, PhD Private Practice

Zoltan Trizna, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mitchel P Goldman, MD Voluntary Clinical Professor of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, Medical Center; Dermatologist, Cosmetic Laser Dermatology

Mitchel P Goldman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Phlebology, Aerospace Medical Association, American Society of Lipo-Suction Surgery, Phi Beta Kappa, Dermatology Foundation, San Diego County Medical Society, American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery, California Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Julia R Nunley, MD Professor, Program Director, Dermatology Residency, Department of Dermatology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center

Julia R Nunley, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American Society of Nephrology, International Society of Nephrology, Medical Dermatology Society, Medical Society of Virginia, National Kidney Foundation, Phi Beta Kappa, Women's Dermatologic Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: American Board of Dermatology<br/>Co-Editor for the text Dermatological Manifestations of Kidney Disease .

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Carrie L Kovarik, MD Assistant Professor of Dermatology, Dermatopathology, and Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Carrie L Kovarik, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Saultz A, Mathews EL, Saultz JW, Judkins D. Clinical inquiries. Does hypercoagulopathy testing benefit patients with DVT?. J Fam Pract. 2010 May. 59(5):291-4. [Medline].

  2. Buchanan GS, Rodgers GM, Branch DW. The inherited thrombophilias: genetics, epidemiology, and laboratory evaluation. Best Pract Res Clin Obst Gynecol. 2003. 138:128-34.

  3. Franchini M, Veneri D, Salvagno GL, Manzato F, Lippi G. Inherited thrombophilia. Clin Lab Sci. 2006. 43:249-90.

  4. Whitlatch NL, Ortel TL. Thrombophilias: when should we test and how does it help. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008. 29:25-39.

  5. Thomas JH. Edgar J Poth lecture. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombosis. Am J Surg. 1990 Dec. 160(6):547-51. [Medline].

  6. Kakkar VV, Howe CT, Nicolaides AN, Renney JT, Clarke MB. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg. Is there a "high risk" group?. Am J Surg. 1970 Oct. 120(4):527-30. [Medline].

  7. Samlaska CP, James WD. Superficial thrombophlebitis. II. Secondary hypercoagulable states. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Jul. 23(1):1-18. [Medline].

  8. Schafer AI. The hypercoagulable states. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Jun. 102(6):814-28. [Medline].

  9. Chengelis DL, Bendick PJ, Glover JL, Brown OW, Ranval TJ. Progression of superficial venous thrombosis to deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 1996 Nov. 24(5):745-9. [Medline].

  10. Samama MM, Trossaert M, Horellou MH, Elalamy I, Conard J, Deschamps A. Risk of thrombosis in patients for factor V Leiden. Blood. 86. 1995:4700-4702.

  11. Rick ME. Protein C and protein S. Vitamin K-dependent inhibitors of blood coagulation. JAMA. 1990 Feb 2. 263(5):701-3. [Medline].

  12. Bauer KA. Pathobiology of the hypercoagulable state: clinical features, laboratory evaluation, and management. Hoffman R, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1991.

  13. Friedman T, O'Brien Coon D, Michaels V J, Bontempo F, Young VL, Clavijo JA, et al. Hereditary coagulopathies: practical diagnosis and management for the plastic surgeon. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010 May. 125(5):1544-52. [Medline].

  14. Collen D, Schetz J, de Cock F, Holmer E, Verstraete M. Metabolism of antithrombin III (heparin cofactor) in man: effects of venous thrombosis and of heparin administration. Eur J Clin Invest. 1977 Feb. 7(1):27-35. [Medline].

  15. Odegård OR, Abildgaard U. Antithrombin III: critical review of assay methods. Significance of variations in health and disease. Haemostasis. 1978. 7(2-3):127-34. [Medline].

  16. Rosendaal FR. Risk factors for venous thrombotic disease. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Aug. 82(2):610-9. [Medline].

  17. Miletich J, Sherman L, Broze G Jr. Absence of thrombosis in subjects with heterozygous protein C deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1987 Oct 15. 317(16):991-6. [Medline].

  18. Engesser L, Broekmans AW, Briët E, Brommer EJ, Bertina RM. Hereditary protein S deficiency: clinical manifestations. Ann Intern Med. 1987 May. 106(5):677-82. [Medline].

  19. Svensson PJ, Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C as a basis for venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1994 Feb 24. 330(8):517-22. [Medline].

  20. Peus D, Heit JA, Pittelkow MR. Activated protein C resistance caused by factor V gene mutation: common coagulation defect in chronic venous leg ulcers?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Apr. 36(4):616-20. [Medline].

  21. Nichols WL, Heit JA. Activated protein C resistance and thrombosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996 Sep. 71(9):897-8. [Medline].

  22. Towne JB. Hypercoagulable states and unexplained vascular graft thrombosis. Bernhard VM, Towne JB, eds. Complications in Vascular Surgery. St. Louis, Mo: Quality Medical Publishing; 1991.

  23. Espinoza LR, Hartmann RC. Significance of the lupus anticoagulant. Am J Hematol. 1986 Jul. 22(3):331-7. [Medline].

  24. Tabachnik-Schor NF, Lipton SA. Association of lupuslike anticoagulant and nonvasculitic cerebral infarction. Arch Neurol. 1986 Aug. 43(8):851-2. [Medline].

  25. Shi W, Krilis SA, Chong BH, Gordon S, Chesterman CN. Prevalence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies in a healthy population. Aust N Z J Med. 1990 Jun. 20(3):231-6. [Medline].

  26. Mueh JR, Herbst KD, Rapaport SI. Thrombosis in patients with the lupus anticoagulant. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Feb. 92(2 Pt 1):156-9. [Medline].

  27. Elias M, Eldor A. Thromboembolism in patients with the 'lupus'-type circulating anticoagulant. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Mar. 144(3):510-5. [Medline].

  28. Kaplan NM. Cardiovascular complications of oral contraceptives. Annu Rev Med. 1978. 29:31-40. [Medline].

  29. Durand JL, Bressler R. Clinical pharmacology of the steroidal oral contraceptives. Adv Intern Med. 1979. 24:97-126. [Medline].

  30. Stolley PD, Tonascia JA, Tockman MS, Sartwell PE, Rutledge AH, Jacobs MP. Thrombosis with low-estrogen oral contraceptives. Am J Epidemiol. 1975 Sep. 102(3):197-208. [Medline].

  31. DeSancho MT, Dorff T, Rand JH. Thrombophilia and the risk of thromboembolic events in women on oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010 Sep. 21(6):534-8. [Medline].

  32. Vessey M, Mant D, Smith A, Yeates D. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: findings in a large prospective study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986 Feb 22. 292(6519):526. [Medline].

  33. Helmrich SP, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Strom B, Shapiro S. Venous thromboembolism in relation to oral contraceptive use. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Jan. 69(1):91-5. [Medline].

  34. Robinson GE, Burren T, Mackie IJ, Bounds W, Walshe K, Faint R, et al. Changes in haemostasis after stopping the combined contraceptive pill: implications for major surgery. BMJ. 1991 Feb 2. 302(6771):269-71. [Medline].

  35. Seigel DG. Pregnancy, the puerperium and the steroid contraceptive. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 1972 Jan. 50(1):Suppl 2:15-23. [Medline].

  36. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Programme. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolic disease, surgically confirmed gallbladder disease, and breast tumours. Report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Programme. Lancet. 1973 Jun 23. 1(7817):1399-404. [Medline].

  37. Quinn DA, Thompson BT, Terrin ML, Thrall JH, Athanasoulis CA, McKusick KA, et al. A prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism in women and men. JAMA. 1992 Oct 7. 268(13):1689-96. [Medline].

  38. Mashchak CA, Lobo RA, Dozono-Takano R, Eggena P, Nakamura RM, Brenner PF, et al. Comparison of pharmacodynamic properties of various estrogen formulations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Nov 1. 144(5):511-8. [Medline].

  39. Grady D, Hulley SB, Furberg C. Venous thromboembolic events associated with hormone replacement therapy. JAMA. 1997 Aug 13. 278(6):477. [Medline].

  40. Stadel BV. Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease (first of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1981 Sep 10. 305(11):612-8. [Medline].

  41. Alkjaersig N, Fletcher A, Burstein R. Association between oral contraceptive use and thromboembolism: a new approach to itsinvestigation based on plasma fibrinogen chromatography. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 May. 122(2):199-211. [Medline].

  42. Siegbahn A, Ruusuvaara L. Age dependence of blood fibrinolytic components and the effects of low-dose oral contraceptives on coagulation and fibrinolysis in teenagers. Thromb Haemost. 1988 Dec 22. 60(3):361-4. [Medline].

  43. Srinivasan S, Solash J, Redner A, Moser C, Farhangian D, Lucas TR, et al. The alteration of surface charge characteristics of the vascular system by oral contraceptive steroids. Contraception. 1974 Mar. 9(3):291-303. [Medline].

  44. Oski FA, Lubin B, Buchert ED. Reduced red cell filterability with oral contraceptive agents. Ann Intern Med. 1972 Sep. 77(3):417-9. [Medline].

  45. Aronson HB, Magora F, Schenker JG. Effect of oral contraceptives on blood viscosity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1971 Aug 1. 110(7):997-1001. [Medline].

  46. Dreyer NA, Pizzo SV. Blood coagulation and idiopathic thromboembolism among fertile women. Contraception. 1980 Aug. 22(2):123-35. [Medline].

  47. Sagar S, Stamatakis JD, Thomas DP, Kakkar VV. Oral contraceptives, antithrombin- III activity, and postoperative deep-vein thrombosis. Lancet. 1976 Mar 6. 1(7958):509-11. [Medline].

  48. von Kaulla E, von Kaulla KN. Oral contraceptives and low antithrombin-3 activity. Lancet. 1970 Jan 3. 1(7636):36. [Medline].

  49. Pizzo SV. Venous thrombosis. Koepke JA, ed. Laboratory Hematology. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1984. Vol 2:

  50. Miller KE, Pizzo SV. Venous and arterial thromboembolic disease in women using oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Dec 1. 144(7):824-7. [Medline].

  51. Astedt B, Isacson S, Nilsson IM, Pandolfi M. Thrombosis and oral contraceptives: possible predisposition. Br Med J. 1973 Dec 15. 4(5893):631-4. [Medline].

  52. Judd HL, Meldrum DR, Deftos LJ, Henderson BE. Estrogen replacement therapy: indications and complications. Ann Intern Med. 1983 Feb. 98(2):195-205. [Medline].

  53. Goodrich SM, Wood JE. The effect of estradiol-17-beta on peripheral venous distensibility and velocity of venous blood flow. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966 Oct 1. 96(3):407-12. [Medline].

  54. Alkjaersig N, Fletcher AP, de Ziegler D, Steingold KA, Meldrum DR, Judd HL. Blood coagulation in postmenopausal women given estrogen treatment: comparison of transdermal and oral administration. J Lab Clin Med. 1988 Feb. 111(2):224-8. [Medline].

  55. Lipton A, Harvey HA, Hamilton RW. Venous thrombosis as a side effect of tamoxifen treatment. Cancer Treat Rep. 1984 Jun. 68(6):887-9. [Medline].

  56. Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, Poisson R, Bowman D, Couture J, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23. 320(8):479-84. [Medline].

  57. Jordan VC, Fritz NF, Tormey DC. Long-term adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen: effects on sex hormone binding globulin and antithrombin III. Cancer Res. 1987 Aug 15. 47(16):4517-9. [Medline].

  58. Love RR, Surawicz TS, Williams EC. Antithrombin III level, fibrinogen level, and platelet count changes with adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1992 Feb. 152(2):317-20. [Medline].

  59. Auger MJ, Mackie MJ. Effects of tamoxifen on blood coagulation. Cancer. 1988 Apr 1. 61(7):1316-9. [Medline].

  60. Bertelli G, Pronzato P, Amoroso D, Cusimano MP, Conte PF, Montagna G, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen in primary breast cancer: influence on plasma lipids and antithrombin III levels. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1988 Dec. 12(3):307-10. [Medline].

  61. Weitz IC, Israel VK, Liebman HA. Tamoxifen-associated venous thrombosis and activated protein C resistance due to factor V Leiden. Cancer. 1997 May 15. 79(10):2024-7. [Medline].

  62. Bonnar J. Hemostatic function and coagulopathy during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Annu. 1978. 7:195-217. [Medline].

  63. Bonnar J, McNicol GP, Douglas AS. Fibrinolytic enzyme system and pregnancy. Br Med J. 1969 Aug 16. 3(5667):387-9. [Medline].

  64. Comp PC, Thurnau GR, Welsh J, Esmon CT. Functional and immunologic protein S levels are decreased during pregnancy. Blood. 1986 Oct. 68(4):881-5. [Medline].

  65. Aaro LA, Johnson TR, Juergens JL. Acute deep venous thrombosis associated with pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1966 Oct. 28(4):553-8. [Medline].

  66. Pomp ER, Lenselink AM, Rosendaal FR, Doggen CJM. Pregnancy, the postpartum period and postthrombotic defects: risk of venous thrombosis in the MEGA study. J Thromb Haemost. 2008. 6:632-637.

  67. McColl MD, Ramsay JE, Tait RC, Walker ID, McCall F, Conkie JA. Risk factors for pregnancy associated venous thromboembolism. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Oct. 78(4):1183-8. [Medline].

  68. Beller FK. Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy. Anderson A, ed. Thromboembolic Disorders. New York, NY: Harper & Row; 1968.

  69. Homans J. Thrombosis of the deep leg veins due to prolonged sitting. N Engl J Med. 1954 Jan 28. 250(4):148-9. [Medline].

  70. Lord RS, McGrath M. Travelers venous thrombosis. 1993.

  71. Cushman M. Epidemiology and risk factors for venous thrombosis. Semin Hematol. 2007 Apr. 44(2):62-9. [Medline].

  72. Lord RS. Air travel-related deep venous thrombosis. Sydney views. Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Apr. 9(2):149-50; discussion 153-6. [Medline].

  73. Parsi KA, McGrath MA, Lord RS. Traveller's venous thromboembolism. Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Apr. 9(2):157-8. [Medline].

  74. McQuillan AD, Eikelboom JW, Baker RI. Venous thromboembolism in travellers: can we identify those at risk?. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2003 Oct. 14(7):671-5. [Medline].

  75. Varki A. Trousseau’s syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms. Blood. 2007. 110:1723-1729.

  76. Kanaan AO, Silva MA, Donovan JL, Roy T, Al-Homsi AS. Meta-analysis of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medically Ill patients. Clin Ther. 2007 Nov. 29(11):2395-405. [Medline].

  77. Geerts WH, Code KI, Jay RM, Chen E, Szalai JP. A prospective study of venous thromboembolism after major trauma. N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 15. 331(24):1601-6. [Medline].

  78. Perry SL, Ortel TL. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thrombophilia. Clin Chest Med. 2003 Mar. 24(1):153-70. [Medline].

  79. Kowalewski R, Sobolewski K, Wolanska M, Gacko M. Matrix metalloproteinases in the vein wall. Int Angiol. 2004 Jun. 23(2):164-9. [Medline].

  80. Kagel EM, Rayan GM. Intravenous catheter complications in the hand and forearm. J Trauma. 2004 Jan. 56(1):123-7. [Medline].

  81. Gupta A, Mehta Y, Juneja R, Trehan N. The effect of cannula material on the incidence of peripheral venous thrombophlebitis. Anaesthesia. 2007 Nov. 62(11):1139-42. [Medline].

  82. Siddoway LA. Amiodarone: guidelines for use and monitoring. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec 1. 68(11):2189-96. [Medline].

  83. Hochmair M, Valipour A, Oschatz E, Hollaus P, Huber M, Chris Burghuber O. From a sore throat to the intensive care unit: the Lemierre syndrome. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 May. 118(7-8):243-6. [Medline].

  84. Brinsuk M, Tank J, Luft FC, Busjahn A, Jordan J. Heritability of venous function in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Jan. 24(1):207-11. [Medline].

  85. Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Errichi BM, Cesarone MR, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the legs: a randomized, controlled, follow-up study. Angiology. 1999 Jul. 50(7):523-9. [Medline].

  86. Agnelli G, Verso M, Ageno W, Imberti D, Moia M, Palareti G, et al. The MASTER registry on venous thromboembolism: description of the study cohort. Thromb Research. 2008. 121:605-610.

  87. Plate G, Eklöf B, Jensen R, Ohlin P. Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and acute surgery in thrombophlebitis of the long saphenous vein. Acta Chir Scand. 1985. 151(3):241-4. [Medline].

  88. Gjores JE. Surgical therapy of ascending thrombophlebitis in the saphenous system. Angiology. 1962 May. 13:241-3. [Medline].

  89. Bergqvist D, Lindblad B. A 30-year survey of pulmonary embolism verified at autopsy: an analysis of 1274 surgical patients. Br J Surg. 1985 Feb. 72(2):105-8. [Medline].

  90. Bergqvist D, Jaroszewski H. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986 Mar 8. 292(6521):658-9. [Medline].

  91. Galloway JM, Karmody AM, Mavor GE. Thrombophlebitis of the long saphenous vein complicated by pulmonary embolism. Br J Surg. 1969 May. 56(5):360-1. [Medline].

  92. Leon L, Giannoukas AD, Dodd D, Chan P, Labropoulos N. Clinical significance of superficial vein thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005 Jan. 29(1):10-7. [Medline].

  93. Di Nisio M, Middeldorp S. Treatment of lower extremity superficial thrombophlebitis. JAMA. 2014 Feb 19. 311(7):729-30. [Medline].

  94. Roach RE, Lijfering WM, van Hylckama Vlieg A, Helmerhorst FM, Rosendaal FR, Cannegieter SC. The risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with a history of superficial vein thrombosis and acquired venous thrombotic risk factors. Blood. 2013 Dec 19. 122(26):4264-9. [Medline].

  95. Schönauer V, Kyrle PA, Weltermann A, Minar E, Bialonczyk C, Hirschl M, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis and risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Apr. 37(4):834-8. [Medline].

  96. Bendick PJ, Ryan R, Alpers M, et al. Clinical significance of superficial thrombophlebitis. J Vasc Technol. 1995. 19:57-61.

  97. Verlato F, Zucchetta P, Prandoni P, Camporese G, Marzola MC, Salmistraro G, et al. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. J Vasc Surg. 1999 Dec. 30(6):1113-5. [Medline].

  98. Krunes U, Lindner F, Lindner R, Gnutzmann J. Genugt die klinische untersuchung einer varikophlebitis des unterschenkels?. Phlebologie. 1999. 28:93-6.

  99. Trujillo-Santos J, Herrera S, Rpage MA, Soto MJ, Raventós A, Sánchez R, et al. Predicting adverse outcome in outpatients with acute deep vein thrombosis: findings from the RIETE Registry. J Vasc Surg. 2006. 44:789-793.

  100. De Stefano V, Rossi E, Paciaroni K, Leone G. Screening for inherited thrombophilia: indications and therapeutic implications. Trends Hematol Oncol. 2002. 87:1095-1108.

  101. Crandon AJ, Peel KR, Anderson JA, Thompson V, McNicol GP. Postoperative deep vein thrombosis: identifying high-risk patients. Br Med J. 1980 Aug 2. 281(6236):343-4. [Medline].

  102. Sue-Ling HM, Johnston D, McMahon MJ, Philips PR, Davies JA. Pre-operative identification of patients at high risk of deep venous thrombosis after elective major abdominal surgery. Lancet. 1986 May 24. 1(8491):1173-6. [Medline].

  103. Coon WW. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Ann Surg. 1977 Aug. 186(2):149-64. [Medline].

  104. Schina MJ Jr, Neumyer MM, Healy DA, Atnip RG, Thiele BL. Influence of age on venous physiologic parameters. J Vasc Surg. 1993 Nov. 18(5):749-52. [Medline].

  105. Greenleaf JE, Rehrer NJ, Mohler SR, Quach DT, Evans DG. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?. Sports Med. 2004. 34(11):705-25. [Medline].

  106. Lee C, Moll S. Migratory superficial thrombophlebitis in a cannabis smoker. Circulation. 2014 Jul 8. 130(2):214-5. [Medline].

  107. Nachmann MM, Jaffe JS, Ginsberg PC, Horrow MM, Harkaway RC. Sickle cell episode manifesting as superficial thrombophlebitis of the penis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2003 Feb. 103(2):102-4. [Medline].

  108. [Guideline] Kearon C, Akl EA, Comerota AJ, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb. 141(2 Suppl):e419S-94S. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  109. Di Nisio M,Wichers IM, Middeldorp S. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007. 2:1-90.

  110. Downing LJ, Strieter RM, Kadell AM, Wilke CA, Greenfield LJ, Wakefield TW. Low-dose low-molecular-weight heparin is anti-inflammatory during venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 1998 Nov. 28(5):848-54. [Medline].

  111. Marchiori A, Verlato F, Sabbion P, Camporese G, Rosso F, Mosena L, et al. High versus low doses of unfractionated heparin for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. A prospective, controlled, randomized study. Haematologica. 2002 May. 87(5):523-7. [Medline].

  112. Rathbun SW, Aston CE, Whitsett TL. A randomized trial of dalteparin compared with ibuprofen for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. J Thromb Haemost. 2012 May. 10(5):833-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  113. Bachmeyer C, Elalamy I. Rivaroxaban as an effective treatment for recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis related to primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014 Oct. 39(7):840-1. [Medline].

  114. Di Nisio M, Wichers IM, Middeldorp S. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30. 4:CD004982. [Medline].

  115. Sacher R. Antithrombin deficiency in special clinical syndromes--Part II: panel discussion #2. Semin Hematol. 1995 Oct. 32(4 Suppl 2):67-71. [Medline].

  116. Chengelis DL, Bendick PJ, Glover JL, Brown OW, Ranval TJ. Progression of superficial venous thrombosis to deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 1996 Nov. 24(5):745-9. [Medline].

  117. Sigg K. The treatment of varicosities and accompanying complications; (the ambulatory treatment of phlebitis with compression bandage). Angiology. 1952 Oct. 3(5):355-79. [Medline].

  118. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Rohdewald P, Ricci A, Ippolito E, Dugall M, et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis in long-haul flights with pycnogenol. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2004 Oct. 10(4):373-7. [Medline].

  119. De Sanctis MT, Cesarone MR, Incandela L, Belcaro G, Griffin M. Treatment of superficial vein thrombophlebitis of the arm with Essaven gel--a placebo-controlled, randomized study. Angiology. 2001 Dec. 52 Suppl 3:S63-7. [Medline].

  120. Beatty J, Fitridge R, Benveniste G, Greenstein D. Acute superficial venous thrombophlebitis: does emergency surgery have a role?. Int Angiol. 2002 Mar. 21(1):93-5. [Medline].

  121. Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Errichi BM, Cesarone MR, De Sanctis MT, Incandela L. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the legs: a randomized, controlled, follow-up study. Angiology. 1999 Jul. 50(7):523-9. [Medline].

  122. Ascer E, Lorensen E, Pollina RM, Gennaro M. Preliminary results of a nonoperative approach to saphenofemoral junction thrombophlebitis. J Vasc Surg. 1995 Nov. 22(5):616-21. [Medline].

  123. Campbell B. Varicose veins and their management. BMJ. 2006 Aug 5. 333(7562):287-92. [Medline].

  124. Torpy JM, Burke AE, Glass RM. JAMA patient page. Thrombophlebitis. JAMA. 2006 Jul 26. 296(4):468. [Medline].

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.