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Pernio Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Michele S Maroon, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
Updated: Feb 08, 2016

Diagnostic Considerations

Also consider the following:

  • Acrocyanosis
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
  • Emboli (septic or cholesterol)
  • Erythromelalgia
  • Ischemia
  • Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome
  • Purple toe syndrome secondary to coumarin
  • Raynaud phenomenon
  • Trauma

Differential Diagnoses

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Michele S Maroon, MD Program Director, Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center

Michele S Maroon, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


David Hensley, MD Mullanax Dermatology Associates, Arlington Memorial Hospital

David Hensley, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Pennsylvania Medical Society, Southern Medical Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA

Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Texas Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Lester F Libow, MD Dermatopathologist, South Texas Dermatopathology Laboratory

Lester F Libow, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Dermatopathology, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Craig A Elmets, MD Professor and Chair, Department of Dermatology, Director, Chemoprevention Program Director, Comprehensive Cancer Center, UAB Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine

Craig A Elmets, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: University of Alabama at Birmingham; University of Alabama Health Services Foundation<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Ferndale Laboratories<br/>Received research grant from: NIH, Veterans Administration, California Grape Assn<br/>Received consulting fee from Astellas for review panel membership; Received salary from Massachusetts Medical Society for employment; Received salary from UpToDate for employment. for: Astellas.

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Erythematous macules on distal toes of a 6-month-old girl with pernio.
Close-up of erythematous macules and plaques on distal plantar toes.
A 63-year-old man with pernio presenting as acral violaceous plaques with bullae.
Close-up of great toe bulla.
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