Halogenoderma

Updated: Jun 02, 2017
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Overview

Background

Halogenodermas are skin eruptions that result after exposure to halogen-containing drugs or substances. The terms iododerma, bromoderma, and fluoroderma are used to describe skin lesions that occur after an individual consumes iodide-, bromide-, or fluoride-containing preparations.

Bromoderma is a cutaneous reaction caused by the use of products containing bromide. The administration of a syrup that contains sodium bromide is one cause. [1] An infant also developed it from a calcium bromide–containing syrup for colic. [2] When cardiac catheterization is performed with iodinated contrast material, vegetating cutaneous nodules can occur. [3]

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Pathophysiology

Halogenoderma may represent a delayed hypersensitivity allergic response. In some studies, the results of lymphocyte transformation tests with iodinated human serum albumin have been positive, suggesting that iodine may act as a hapten.

Iodides can increase the movement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the areas of inflammation. Inflammatory mediators released from neutrophils might be responsible for the hyperproliferative and vegetative aspects of the skin lesions. [4] Perhaps, in some cases, these mediators may account for the histopathologic changes of leukocytoclastic vasculitis that are sometimes evident. [5]

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Patient Education

Patients with iododermas should be instructed to avoid iodine in their diet, medications, and future radiographic studies.

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