Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Chromoblastomycosis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
Updated: Jun 22, 2016

Medical Care

One of the most characteristic features of chromoblastomycosis is its refractoriness to treatment. Treatment options include oral itraconazole (as monotherapy or with oral flucytosine [5-FC]), locally applied heat therapy, cryosurgery, and combination therapy.[60] Successful treatment of severe chromoblastomycosis with itraconazole and 5-flucytosine association has been reported.[61] Therapeutic success is related to the causative agent, as well as the clinical form and severity of the chromoblastomycosis.

Several authors indicate itraconazole as the best choice of therapy.[18, 62, 63] Daily doses range from 200-400 mg, and results vary greatly. Adverse effects are not common, but efficacy is not as high as one would desire. Severe cases should be treated for several years. The authors' experience in treating more than 25 patients with varying degrees of severity for as long as 5 years shows that itraconazole produces dramatic improvement after a few months of therapy; however, a complete cure is rarely reached, especially in severe cases. These results might be because of the predominantly fungistatic mechanism of action of the drug. In numerous cases, drug withdrawal led to relapse.

Although few studies have been published, the association of itraconazole and 5-FC is promising.[64] As with 5-FC and amphotericin B, itraconazole and 5-FC produce a synergistic effect. Multidrug therapy for chromoblastomycosis seems to be an interesting approach and may also be used with cryosurgery.

In 1996, Esterre et al[65] presented interesting results when using terbinafine to treat more than 100 patients in Madagascar. Similar to that of itraconazole, the drug presented below optimal results, it is exceedingly expensive, and treatment lasts several months. To date, no reports on the association of terbinafine and itraconazole or terbinafine and 5-FC have appeared in the literature.

Posaconazole (Noxafil), a new triazole derivative, has been experimentally used to treat chromoblastomycosis. Posaconazole has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for prophylaxis against invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections in patients at high risk because of severe immunosuppression. The results of isolated cases suggest that outcomes may be slightly superior to those obtained by itraconazole or terbinafine (Unpublished data on file, Dr. Shikanai-Yasuda, Department of Infectious Diseases, Univ. São Paulo). According to Keating[66] in 2005, posaconazole at 800 mg/d was associated with an overall success rate of 82% in persons with refractory chromoblastomycosis.

Heat therapy is another treatment. Especially in Japan, the use of pocket warmers has proven successful in the treatment of a limited number of cases. Apparently, an increase in skin temperature somehow impairs fungal development.[67]

Lymphedema and secondary infection or ulcerated lesions are common complications of chromoblastomycosis on the lower limbs. Physiotherapy and lymphatic drainage are useful in preventing lymphedema. Ulcers and secondary infection are dealt with by appropriate nursing care. Oral antibiotics may be used.


Surgical Care

Cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen can be used to treat chromoblastomycosis, especially localized lesions. Several reports have appeared in the literature showing that the method has been used on almost every continent with good results. Combination therapy with cryotherapy and terbinafine has been advocated.[68]

Freezing time in one study varied from 30 seconds to 4 minutes, and the number of cycles varied from 1 to more than 40. All localized lesions responded extremely well to treatment, with no relapse for as long as 15 years, a follow-up period unparalleled in the literature. Three patients with generalized lesions attained clinical and mycologic remission for as long as 26 months, and 3 had significant improvement without cure.[69]

Multiple treatment modalities are often combined, such as long courses of antifungals, surgical excision, and destructive physical therapies, because chromoblastomycosis is one of the most difficult deep mycotic infections to eradicate.[70] Final treatment with surgical excision may be beneficial.[71] Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) irradiation may be adjunctive in combination with antifungal medication.[72, 73] PDT can be combined with terbinafine.[74]



The most common complications of chromoblastomycosis are ulceration, secondary bacterial infection, lymphedema that leads to elephantiasis, and myiasis.[75] Leech bites may predispose to bacterial infection. Rare cases of malignant transformation (squamous cell carcinoma) of chromoblastomycosis have been documented.[76]

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

David F Butler, MD Section Chief of Dermatology, Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System; Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Founding Chair, Department of Dermatology, Scott and White Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Alpha Omega Alpha, Association of Military Dermatologists, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey P Callen, MD Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Chief, Division of Dermatology, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Jeffrey P Callen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: XOMA; Biogen/IDEC; Novartis; Janssen Biotech, Abbvie, CSL pharma<br/>Received honoraria from UpToDate for author/editor; Received honoraria from JAMA Dermatology for associate editor and intermittent author; Received royalty from Elsevier for book author/editor; Received dividends from trust accounts, but I do not control these accounts, and have directed our managers to divest pharmaceutical stocks as is fiscally prudent from Stock holdings in various trust accounts include some pharmaceutical companies and device makers for i inherited these trust accounts; for: Celgene; Pfizer; 3M; Johnson and Johnson; Merck; Abbott Laboratories; AbbVie; Procter and Gamble; Amgen.

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Eugeniusz Baran, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Head, Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Eugeniusz Baran, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: European Confederation of Medical Mycology and International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Luiz Guilherme M Castro, MD Supervising Physician, Master and Doctor in Dermatology, Division of Dermatology, Hospital Das Clinicas, University of São Paulo, Brazil

Luiz Guilherme M Castro is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Rubin HA, Bruce S, Rosen T, McBride ME. Evidence for percutaneous inoculation as the mode of transmission for chromoblastomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Nov. 25(5 Pt 2):951-4. [Medline].

  2. Castro LG, Pimentel ER, Lacaz CS. Treatment of chromomycosis by cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen: 15 years' experience. Int J Dermatol. 2003 May. 42(5):408-12. [Medline].

  3. McGinnis MR. Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: new concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983 Jan. 8(1):1-16. [Medline].

  4. Medlar EM. A cutaneous infection caused by a new fungus Phialophora verrucosa with a study of the fungus. J Med Res. 1915. 32:507-22.

  5. Odds FC, Arai T, Disalvo AF, et al. Nomenclature of fungal diseases: a report and recommendations from a Sub-Committee of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM). J Med Vet Mycol. 1992. 30(1):1-10. [Medline].

  6. Terra F, Torres M, Fonseca Filho O. Novo tipo de dermatite verrucosa; micose por Acrotheca com associado de leishmaniose. Brasil Medico. 1922. 36:363-8.

  7. Lane CG. A cutaneous disease caused by a new fungus Phialophora verrucosa. J Cutan Dis. 1915. 33:840-6.

  8. Castro RM, Castro LG. On the priority of description of chromomycosis. Mykosen. 1987 Sep. 30(9):397-403. [Medline].

  9. Hoffman WH. Die Chromoblastomykose in Kuba. Arch Schiffs u Tropen Hyg. 1928. 32:485-7.

  10. Pedroso A, Gomes JM. 4 casos de dermatite verrucosa produzida pela Phialophora verrucosa. Ann Paulistas de Medicina e Cirurgia. 1920. 11:53-61.

  11. Brumpt E. Prés de Parasitologie. 3rd ed. Paris, France: Masson; 1922. 1105.

  12. Negroni R. Estudio del primer caso argentino de cromomicosis, Fonsecaea (Negroni) pedrosoi (Brumpt) 1921. Rev Inst Bacteriol. 1936. 7:419-26.

  13. Rippon JW. Chromoblastomycosis and related dermal infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Medical Mycology. The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1982. 249-76.

  14. Lacaz CS, Porto E, Martins JEC. Fungos, actinomicetos e algas de interesse medico. Micologia Medica. 8th ed. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sarvier; 1991. 373-86.

  15. South DA, Brass C, Stevens DA. Chromohyphomycosis. Treatment wit ketoconazole. Arch Dermatol. 1981 May. 117(5):311-2. [Medline].

  16. Naka W, Harada T, Nishikawa T, Fukushiro R. A case of chromoblastomycosis: with special reference to the mycology of the isolated Exophiala jeanselmei. Mykosen. 1986 Oct. 29(10):445-52. [Medline].

  17. Barba-Gomez JF, Mayorga J, McGinnis MR, Gonzalez-Mendoza A. Chromoblastomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Feb. 26(2 Pt 2):367-70. [Medline].

  18. Queiroz-Telles F, Purim KS, Fillus JN, et al. Itraconazole in the treatment of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Int J Dermatol. 1992 Nov. 31(11):805-12. [Medline].

  19. Padhye AA, Hampton AA, Hampton MT, Hutton NW, Prevost-Smith E, Davis MS. Chromoblastomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Feb. 22(2):331-5. [Medline].

  20. Piepenbring M, Caceres Mendez OA, Espino Espinoza AA, Kirschner R, Schofer H. Chromoblastomycosis caused by Chaetomium funicola: a case report from Western Panama. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Nov. 157(5):1025-9. [Medline].

  21. Conant NF. The occurrence of a human pathogenic fungus as a saprophyte in nature. Mycologia. 1937. 29:597-8.

  22. Zeppenfeldt G, Richard-Yegres N, Yegres F. Cladosporium carrionii: hongo dimorfico en cactaceas de la zona endemica para la cromomicosis en Venezuela. Rev Iberoam Micol. 1994. 11:61-3.

  23. Najafzadeh MJ, Sun J, Vicente V, Xi L, van den Ende AH, de Hoog GS. Fonsecaea nubica sp. nov, a new agent of human chromoblastomycosis revealed using molecular data. Med Mycol. 2010 Mar 22. [Medline].

  24. Badali H, Bonifaz A, Barrón-Tapia T, Vázquez-González D, Estrada-Aguilar L, Cavalcante Oliveira NM, et al. Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, proven agent of verrucous skin infection and a novel type of chromoblastomycosis. Med Mycol. 2010 Jan 29. [Medline].

  25. Brygoo ER, Destombes P. Epidemiologie de la chromoblastomycose humaine. Bull Inst Pasteur. 1975. 74:219-43.

  26. Nishimoto K. Chromomycosis in Japan. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1981 Sep. 61(3):405-12. [Medline].

  27. Berger L, Langeron M. Sur un type noveau de chromomycose observé au Canada (Torula bergeri n. sp). Ann Parasit Hum Comp. 1949. 24:574-99.

  28. Putkonen T. [Chromomycosis in Finland. The possible role of the Finnish sauna in its spreading]. Hautarzt. 1966 Nov. 17(11):507-9. [Medline].

  29. Sonck CE. Chromomycosis in Finland. Dermatology. 1975. 19:189-93.

  30. Pradhan SV, Talwar OP, Ghosh A, Swami RM, Shiva Raj KC, Gupta S. Chromoblastomycosis in Nepal: a study of 13 cases. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 May-Jun. 73(3):176-8. [Medline].

  31. Xi L, Sun J, Lu C, et al. Molecular diversity of Fonsecaea (Chaetothyriales) causing chromoblastomycosis in southern China. Med Mycol. 2009 Feb. 47(1):27-33. [Medline].

  32. Chandran V, Sadanandan SM, Sobhanakumari K. Chromoblastomycosis in kerala, India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2012 Nov-Dec. 78(6):728-33. [Medline].

  33. Marques GF, Masuda PY, Sousa JM, Barreto JA, Wachholz PA. Clinical and demographic profile of chromoblastomycosis in a referral service in the midwest of São Paulo state (Brazil). An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Jan-Feb. 90(1):140-2. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  34. Schieffelin JS, Garcia-Diaz JB, Loss GE Jr, Beckman EN, Keller RA, Staffeld-Coit C, et al. Phaeohyphomycosis fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients: clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment. Transpl Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 17. [Medline].

  35. Salgado CG, da Silva MB, Yamano SS, Salgado UI, Diniz JA, da Silva JP. Cutaneous localized annular chromoblastomycosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Feb. 36(2):257-61. [Medline].

  36. El Euch D, Mokni M, Haouet S, Trojjet S, Zitouna M, Ben Osman A. [Erythemato-squamous papular and atrophic plaque on abdomen: chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi]. Med Trop (Mars). 2010 Feb. 70(1):81-3. [Medline].

  37. Sharma NL, Sharma VC, Mahajan V, Shanker V, Sarin S. Chromoblastomycosis with underlying osteolytic lesion. Mycoses. 2007 Nov. 50(6):517-9. [Medline].

  38. Krishna S, Shenoy MM, Pinto M, Saxena V. Two cases of axillary chromoblastomycosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2016 Jan 21. [Medline].

  39. França K, Villa RT, de Azevedo Bastos VR, Almeida AC, Massucatti K, Fukumaru D, et al. Auricular Chromoblastomycosis: A Case Report and Review of Published Literature. Mycopathologia. 2011 Feb 17. [Medline].

  40. Sharma A, Hazarika NK, Gupta D. Chromoblastomycosis in Sub-Tropical Regions of India. Mycopathologia. 2010 Jan 22. [Medline].

  41. Naveen KN, Naik AS, Shetty PC, Pai VV, Hanumanthayya K, Udupishastry D. Chromoblastomycosis presenting as a phagedenic ulcer on the face. Int J Dermatol. 2011 Sep 19. [Medline].

  42. Silva CM, da Rocha RM, Moreno JS, et al. [The coconut babaçu (Orbignya phalerata martins) as a probable risk of human infection by the agent of chromoblastomycosis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1995 Jan-Mar. 28(1):49-52. [Medline].

  43. Salgado CG, da Silva JP, Diniz JA, et al. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from thorns of Mimosa pudica, a probable natural source of chromoblastomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004 Jan-Feb. 46(1):33-6. [Medline].

  44. Martinez EC, Rey Valeiron C, Yegres F, Reyes R. [The goat: approach to an animal model in human chromomycosis]. Invest Clin. 2005 Jun. 46(2):131-8. [Medline].

  45. Tsuneto LT, Arce-Gomez B, Petzl-Erler ML, Queiroz-Telles F. HLA-A29 and genetic susceptibility to chromoblastomycosis. J Med Vet Mycol. 1989. 27(3):181-5. [Medline].

  46. Verma S, Verma GK, Singh G, Kanga A, Sharma V, Gautam N. Facial chromoblastomycosis in sub-Himalayan region misdiagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis: brief report and review of Indian literature. Dermatol Online J. 2012 Oct 15. 18(10):3. [Medline].

  47. Azevedo CM, Marques SG, Santos DW, Silva RR, Silva NF, Santos DA, et al. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived From Chronic Chromoblastomycosis in Brazil. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 13. [Medline].

  48. Campolina SS, Caligiorne RB, Rezende-Silva S, Hahn RC, De Hoog GS. A skin infection mimicking chromoblastomycosis by a Capnodialean fungus. Med Mycol. 2009 Feb. 47(1):81-5. [Medline].

  49. Bui AQ, Espana EM, Margo CE. Chromoblastomycosis of the conjunctiva mimicking melanoma of the ciliary body. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 Dec 1. 130(12):1615-7. [Medline].

  50. Anjaneyan G, Jagadeesan S, Thomas J. Cytodiagnostic copper pennies in chromoblastomycosis. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016 Mar-Apr. 7 (2):145-6. [Medline].

  51. Miranda MF, Silva AJ. Vinyl adhesive tape also effective for direct microscopy diagnosis of chromomycosis, lobomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 May. 52(1):39-43. [Medline].

  52. Saxena AK, Jain S, Ramesh V, Singh A, Capoor MR. Chromoblastomycosis: Demonstration of abundant microorganisms on microscopy of a scaly crust following intralesional corticosteroids. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Feb 14. [Medline].

  53. Vidal MS. Estudo imunoquimco de um antigeno de Fonsecaea pedrosoi e padronizao de teiicas sorologicas para cromoblastomicose causada por este fungo. Sao Paulo, Brazil: University of Sao Paulo; 2002.

  54. Oberto-Perdigon L, Romero H, Perez-Blanco M, Apitz-Castro R. [An ELISA test for the study of the therapeutic evolution of chromoblastomycosis by Cladophialophora carrionii in the endemic area of Falcon State, Venezuela]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2005 Mar. 22(1):39-43. [Medline].

  55. de Andrade TS, Cury AE, de Castro LG, Hirata MH, Hirata RD. Rapid identification of Fonsecaea by duplex polymerase chain reaction in isolates from patients with chromoblastomycosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Mar. 57(3):267-72. [Medline].

  56. Najafzadeh MJ, Sun J, Vicente VA, de Hoog GS. Rapid identification of fungal pathogens by rolling circle amplification using Fonsecaea as a model. Mycoses. 2011 Sep. 54(5):e577-82. [Medline].

  57. Ogawa MM. Cromoblastomicose: Teraplicas e alternativos linfocintilograpicas. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Tese de Mestrado, Escola Paulista de Medicina; 2001.

  58. Salfelder K, de Liscano TR, Sauerteig E. Atlas of Fungal Pathology. Kluwer/Dordrecht; 1990. 145-50.

  59. Jawitz RS, Calder KB, Turner LM, Schlauder S, Morgan MB. Cryptic "chromo-fibroma". Am J Dermatopathol. 2007 Dec. 29(6):573-5. [Medline].

  60. Queiroz-Telles F, Esterre P, Perez-Blanco M, Vitale RG, Salgado CG, Bonifaz A. Chromoblastomycosis: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol. 2009 Feb. 47(1):3-15. [Medline].

  61. Antonello VS, Silva MC, Cambruzzi E, Kliemann DA, Santos BR, Queiroz-Telles F. Treatment of severe chromoblastomycosis with itraconazole and 5-flucytosine association. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010 Dec. 52(6):329-31. [Medline].

  62. Restrepo A, Gonzalez A, Gomez I, Arango M, de Bedout C. Treatment of chromoblastomycosis with itraconazole. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988. 544:504-16. [Medline].

  63. Graybill JR. Future directions of antifungal chemotherapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Mar. 14 Suppl 1:S170-81. [Medline].

  64. Pradinaud R, Bolzinger T. Treatment of chromoblastomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Nov. 25(5 Pt 1):869-70. [Medline].

  65. Esterre P, Inzan CK, Ramarcel ER, et al. Treatment of chromomycosis with terbinafine: preliminary results of an open pilot study. Br J Dermatol. 1996 Jun. 134 Suppl 46:33-6; discussion 40. [Medline].

  66. Keating GM. Posaconazole. Drugs. 2005. 65(11):1553-67; discussion 1568-9. [Medline].

  67. Kinbara T, Fukushiro R, Eryu Y. Chromomycosis--report of two cases successfully treated with local heat therapy. Mykosen. 1982 Dec. 25(12):689-94. [Medline].

  68. Bassas-Vila J, Fuente MJ, Guinovart R, Ferrándiz C. Chromoblastomycosis: response to combination therapy with cryotherapy and terbinafine. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2014 Mar. 105(2):196-8. [Medline].

  69. Pimentel ER, Castro LG, Cuce LC, Sampaio SA. Treatment of chromomycosis by cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen: a report on eleven cases. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989 Jan. 15(1):72-7. [Medline].

  70. Ameen M. Managing chromoblastomycosis. Trop Doct. 2010 Apr. 40(2):65-7. [Medline].

  71. Badali H, Fernández-González M, Mousavi B, Illnait-Zaragozi MT, González-Rodríguez JC, de Hoog GS, et al. Chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi and F. monophora in Cuba. Mycopathologia. 2013 Mar 8. [Medline].

  72. Lyon JP, Pedroso e Silva Azevedo Cde M, Moreira LM, de Lima CJ, de Resende MA. Photodynamic antifungal therapy against chromoblastomycosis. Mycopathologia. 2011 Oct. 172(4):293-7. [Medline].

  73. Yang Y, Hu Y, Zhang J, Li X, Lu C, Liang Y, et al. A refractory case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea monophora with improvement by photodynamic therapy. Med Mycol. 2012 Feb 7. [Medline].

  74. Hu Y, Huang X, Lu S, Hamblin MR, Mylonakis E, Zhang J, et al. Photodynamic Therapy Combined with Terbinafine Against Chromoblastomycosis and the Effect of PDT on Fonsecaea monophora In Vitro. Mycopathologia. 2015 Feb. 179(1-2):103-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  75. Slesak G, Inthalad S, Strobel M, Marschal M, Hall M Jr, Newton PN. Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 12. 11:14. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  76. Rojas OC, González GM, Moreno-Treviño M, Salas-Alanis J. Chromoblastomycosis by Cladophialophora carrionii Associated with Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Review of Published Reports. Mycopathologia. 2015 Feb. 179(1-2):153-7. [Medline].

  77. Bonifaz A, Carrasco-Gerard E, Saul A. Chromoblastomycosis: clinical and mycologic experience of 51 cases. Mycoses. 2001. 44(1-2):1-7. [Medline].

  78. Zhang J, Xi L, Lu C, et al. Successful treatment for chromoblastomycosis caused by Fonsecaea monophora: a report of three cases in Guangdong, China. Mycoses. 2009 Mar. 52(2):176-81. [Medline].

  79. Tagami H, Ginoza M, Imaizumi S, Urano-Suehisa S. Successful treatment of chromoblastomycosis with topical heat therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 Apr. 10(4):615-9. [Medline].

  80. da Glória Teixeira de Sousa M, Júnior WB, Spina R, Lota PR, Valente NS, Brown GD, et al. Topical application of Imiquimod as a treatment for Chromoblastomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 14. [Medline].

Sclerotic cells on a potassium hydroxide preparation.
Micromorphology of Cladosporium carrionii (left) and Fonsecaea pedrosoi (right), the 2 most commonly isolated agents in chromoblastomycosis.
Chromoblastomycosis, tumoral form. Chronic disease led to elephantiasis and involvement of the entire lower limb.
Plaque lesion on the foot. The verrucous aspect of the lesion differentiates it from other infectious dermatoses that may present as a verrucous lesion, namely, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sporotrichosis, cutaneous tuberculosis, and cutaneous mycobacteriosis.
Culture of Fonsecaea pedrosoi on Sabouraud agar. The black velvety colony has the same macroscopic appearance as the colonies of other chromoblastomycosis-causing agents (eg, Cladosporium carrionii, Fonsecaea compacta, Phialophora verrucosa, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, Exophiala species).
Hematoxylin and eosin–stained section shows typical sclerotic cells inside an abscess. Sclerotic cells present as round, thick-walled, cigar-colored structures.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.