Primary Systemic Amyloidosis Workup
- Author: Judit Nyirady, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD more...
In a review of 132 primary systemic amyloidosis cases, Kyle and Bayrd reported that laboratory studies revealed anemia in less than 50% of the cases. The white cell count was usually within the reference range, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher than 50 mm/h in one half of the cases. Hepatic function was abnormal, and the serum creatinine level was increased in 50% of patients. Proteinuria was present in more than 90% of the cases.
Conventional urine heat testing and electrophoresis of serum and urine samples may fail to demonstrate small quantities of monoclonal paraprotein or Bence-Jones protein. Immunoelectrophoresis of serum and concentrated urine samples is essential.
Echocardiography is valuable in the evaluation of amyloid heart disease. It usually reveals a concentrically thickened left ventricle and often a thickened right ventricle, with a normal-to-small cavity.
Doppler studies are useful and may show abnormal relaxation early in the course of the disease. Advanced involvement is characterized by restrictive hemodynamics.
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography has been used in primary systemic amyloidosis evaluation.
Biopsy of a cutaneous lesion, if present, has the advantage of safety and a high diagnostic yield.
Biopsy results in clinically normal skin may be positive in as many as 50% of cases of primary systemic amyloidosis.
Findings from abdominal fat aspiration are positive in almost 80% of patients.
Rectal biopsy reveals positive findings in about 80% of patients.
If specimens from the biopsy sites are negative for amyloid, tissue should be obtained from an organ or area with suspected involvement, such as the kidney, liver, heart, or sural nerve.
The best way to identify amyloid is to stain paraffin-embedded sections with alkaline Congo red and to examine them with polarized light to elicit a green fluorescence. Routine hematoxylin-eosin staining may show a homogenous, faintly eosinophilic mass if enough amyloid is present. See the image below.
Analysis of a skin biopsy specimen of a papule reveals an amorphous or fissured eosinophilic mass in the papillary dermis with associated thinning or obliteration of the rete ridges. Nodules and plaques may demonstrate diffuse amyloid deposition in the reticular dermis or subcutis. Amyloid depositions are usually not associated with an inflammatory infiltrate.
The appearance of amyloid infiltration of the blood vessel walls, pilosebaceous units, arrector pili muscles, and lamina propria of sweat glands and infiltration around individual fat cells in the subcutis (known as amyloid rings) are characteristic findings. Amyloid may be deposited in the nail bed of dystrophic nails.
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