LEOPARD Syndrome Treatment & Management

Updated: Jun 22, 2016
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Treatment

Medical Care

Cryosurgery and laser treatment may be beneficial for isolated lentigines; however, because of the large number of lentigines it may be time consuming. For some patients, treatment with tretinoin cream and hydroquinone cream may be helpful.

Therapeutic regimens include beta-adrenergic receptor or calcium channel blocking agents to reduce outflow tract obstruction and adrenergic responsiveness in patients with structural cardiac anomalies.

Antiarrhythmic treatment may be required in cases with life-threatening ventricular ectopy.

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Surgical Care

Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases with severe outflow tract obstruction or in patients with cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or severe skeletal deformity.

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Consultations

Genetic counseling should be offered to all patients with LEOPARD syndrome. Frequent presentation of forme fruste requires careful examination of all family members.

Consult a cardiologist, endocrinologist, and orthopedist as dictated by history and physical examination findings.

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Activity

Advise patients with outflow tract obstruction or significant cardiac dysrhythmias to avoid strenuous physical exercises.

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Prevention

Genetic counseling and examination of other family members is indicated.

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Long-Term Monitoring

All patients with the LEOPARD syndrome should undergo periodic cardiac assessment with echocardiography and electrocardiographic examination because the heart conduction impairment tends to occur gradually but progressively.

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