Cryosurgery and laser treatment may be beneficial for isolated lentigines; however, because of the large number of lentigines it may be time consuming. For some patients, treatment with tretinoin cream and hydroquinone cream may be helpful.
Therapeutic regimens include beta-adrenergic receptor or calcium channel blocking agents to reduce outflow tract obstruction and adrenergic responsiveness in patients with structural cardiac anomalies.
Antiarrhythmic treatment may be required in cases with life-threatening ventricular ectopy.
Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases with severe outflow tract obstruction or in patients with cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or severe skeletal deformity.
Genetic counseling should be offered to all patients with LEOPARD syndrome. Frequent presentation of forme fruste requires careful examination of all family members.
Consult a cardiologist, endocrinologist, and orthopedist as dictated by history and physical examination findings.
Advise patients with outflow tract obstruction or significant cardiac dysrhythmias to avoid strenuous physical exercises.
Genetic counseling and examination of other family members is indicated.
All patients with the LEOPARD syndrome should undergo periodic cardiac assessment with echocardiography and electrocardiographic examination because the heart conduction impairment tends to occur gradually but progressively.
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