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LEOPARD Syndrome Treatment & Management

  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 22, 2016
 

Medical Care

Cryosurgery and laser treatment may be beneficial for isolated lentigines; however, because of the large number of lentigines it may be time consuming. For some patients, treatment with tretinoin cream and hydroquinone cream may be helpful.

Therapeutic regimens include beta-adrenergic receptor or calcium channel blocking agents to reduce outflow tract obstruction and adrenergic responsiveness in patients with structural cardiac anomalies.

Antiarrhythmic treatment may be required in cases with life-threatening ventricular ectopy.

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Surgical Care

Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases with severe outflow tract obstruction or in patients with cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or severe skeletal deformity.

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Consultations

Genetic counseling should be offered to all patients with LEOPARD syndrome. Frequent presentation of forme fruste requires careful examination of all family members.

Consult a cardiologist, endocrinologist, and orthopedist as dictated by history and physical examination findings.

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Activity

Advise patients with outflow tract obstruction or significant cardiac dysrhythmias to avoid strenuous physical exercises.

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Prevention

Genetic counseling and examination of other family members is indicated.

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Long-Term Monitoring

All patients with the LEOPARD syndrome should undergo periodic cardiac assessment with echocardiography and electrocardiographic examination because the heart conduction impairment tends to occur gradually but progressively.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Sergiusz Jozwiak, MD, PhD Professor and Head of Pediatric Neurology, Warsaw Medical University, Poland

Sergiusz Jozwiak, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Novartis for speaking and teaching.

Specialty Editor Board

Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA

Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Texas Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey Meffert, MD Associate Clinical Professor of Dermatology, University of Texas School of Medicine at San Antonio

Jeffrey Meffert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

James J Nordlund, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

James J Nordlund, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Sigma Xi, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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Multiple lentigines on the face of a child with LEOPARD syndrome.
Lentigines on the sclerae in a child with LEOPARD syndrome.
Area of disordered pigmentation on the trunk of a patient with LEOPARD syndrome.
Onychodystrophy in a child with LEOPARD syndrome.
Multiple, small lentigines evenly distributed over the trunk of an adult female with LEOPARD syndrome.
 
 
 
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