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Nail Psoriasis 

  • Author: Cindy Li, DO; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 22, 2015
 

Overview of Nail Psoriasis

Psoriatic nail disease has many clinical signs. Most psoriatic nail disease occurs in patients with clinically evident psoriasis; it only occurs in less than 5% of patients with no other cutaneous findings of psoriasis.

An estimated 10-55% of all patients with psoriasis have psoriatic nail disease, and approximately 7 million people in the United States have psoriasis. About 150,000-260,000 new cases of psoriasis are diagnosed each year. US physicians see 1.5 million patients with psoriasis per year.

Severe psoriatic nail disease can lead to functional and social impairments if left untreated.[1, 2]

See the images of psoriatic nail disease below.

Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD. Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD.
Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement i Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis.
This patient has extensive psoriasis, nail involve This patient has extensive psoriasis, nail involvement, and joint pain.

See 15 Fingernail Abnormalities: Nail the Diagnosis, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify conditions associated with various nail abnormalities.

For patient education information, see the Psoriasis Center and Arthritis Center, as well as Psoriasis, Types of Psoriasis, Understanding Psoriasis Medications, and Psoriatic Arthritis.

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Pathophysiology of Nail Psoriasis

The pathogenesis of the psoriatic nail disorder is not completely known. Nail psoriasis may be due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. A well-known fact is that a familial aggregation of psoriasis exists. Studies have linked psoriasis with certain human leukocyte antigen subtypes (eg, Cw6, B13, Bw57, Cw2, Cw11, B27). A T-cell–mediated inflammatory process is being investigated as part of the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

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Epidemiology of Nail Psoriasis

Psoriatic nail disease occurs in 10-55% of all patients with psoriasis, and approximately 7 million people in the United States have psoriasis (psoriasis affects 2-3% of the US population). Less than 5% of psoriatic nail disease cases occur in patients without other cutaneous findings of psoriasis. About 10-20% of people with psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis, and nail changes are seen in 53-86% of patients with psoriatic arthritis.

Psoriasis tends to run in families. In Farber's questionnaire study of 2100 patients,[3] 36% of patients reported the presence of psoriasis in at least 1 relative. Among siblings, 8% are affected if neither parent has psoriasis. This percentage increases to 16-25% if 1 parent or sibling has the disease, and it reaches up to 75% if both parents are affected. If 1 twin has psoriasis, the other twin is at an increased risk of having psoriasis (25% for fraternal twins, 65% for identical twins).

In Scandinavia, the prevalence rate of nail psoriasis for adults with psoriasis approaches 5%. The prevalence increases with the age of the population studied.

Psoriatic nail disease is not associated with mortality. In severe cases, patients may have functional and psychosocial impairments.

Males and females are affected equally by nail psoriasis, and the prevalence of nail psoriasis increases with the age of the population studied.

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Clinical Presentation of Nail Psoriasis

Patient history

Most psoriatic nail disease occurs in people with clinically evident psoriasis. The diagnosis of psoriatic nail disease without cutaneous psoriasis can be challenging because of the low index of suspicion and the lack of personal/family history of psoriasis.

A retrospective study from 2014 reports that nail involvement in psoriasis is a significant predictor of the patient also having psoriatic arthritis.[4] The study looked at retrospective data from three German cross-sectional independent national studies on patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Data on the patient’s history of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, clinical findings, nail involvement, and patient- and practitioner-reported outcomes were collected from standardized questionnaires. In the results, the regression model of 4146 patients indicated one of the strongest predictors of concomitant psoriatic arthritis was nail involvement.

Physical examination

The clinical findings associated with psoriatic nail disease correlate with the anatomical location of the nail unit that is affected by the disease. The nail unit is composed of the nail plate, the nail bed, the hyponychium, the nail matrix, the nail folds, the cuticle, the anchoring portion of the nail bed, and the distal phalangeal bones (see the images below). The nail plate is the largest component of the nail unit. The nail matrix gives rise to the nail plate.

Any defect to the matrix results in onychodystrophy of the growing nail plate. The proximal nail matrix forms the dorsal portion of the nail plate, whereas the distal matrix forms the ventral part of the nail plate. The clinical presentation may vary depending on the location and the severity of inflammation of the affected nail unit.[5] See the images below.

Anatomy of the nail, superior view. Anatomy of the nail, superior view.
Anatomy of the nail, sagittal view. Anatomy of the nail, sagittal view.

Oil drop or salmon patch of the nail bed

This lesion is a translucent, yellow-red discoloration in the nail bed resembling a drop of oil beneath the nail plate. This patch is the most diagnostic sign of nail psoriasis.[6]

Pitting of the proximal nail matrix

Pitting is a result of the loss of parakeratotic cells from the surface of the nail plate.

Beau lines of the proximal nail matrix

These lines are transverse lines in the nails due to intermittent inflammation causing growth arrest lines.

Leukonychia of the midmatrix

Leukonychia consists of areas of white nail plate due to foci of parakeratosis within the body of the nail plate.

Subungual hyperkeratosis of the hyponychium

Subungual hyperkeratosis affects the nail bed and the hyponychium. Excessive proliferation of the nail bed can lead to onycholysis.

Onycholysis of the nail bed and nail hyponychium

Onycholysis is a white area of the nail plate due to a functional separation of the nail plate from its underlying attachment to the nail bed. It usually starts distally and progresses proximally, causing a traumatic uplifting of the distal nail plate. Secondary microbial colonization may occur.

Nail plate crumbling

Nail plate weakening due to disease of the underlying structures causes this condition.

Splinter hemorrhage/dilated tortuous capillaries in the dermal papillae

Splinter hemorrhages are longitudinal black lines due to minute foci of capillary hemorrhage between the nail bed and the nail plate. This is analogous to the Auspitz sign of cutaneous psoriasis, which is the pinpoint bleeding seen beneath the psoriatic plaques.

Spotted lunula/distal matrix

This is an erythematous patch of the lunula.

Classification of nail psoriasis

Most people with psoriatic arthritis have nail changes that can be classified as follows (see the images below):

  • Type I - Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement (5% of patients)
  • Type II - Arthritis mutilans
  • Type III - Symmetric polyarthritis
  • Type IV - Asymmetric oligoarthritis (the most common type of psoriatic arthritis, occurring in 70% of patients)
  • Type V - Ankylosing spondylitis

See the images below.

Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement i Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis.
This patient has extensive psoriasis, nail involve This patient has extensive psoriasis, nail involvement, and joint pain.
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Etiology of Nail Psoriasis

Psoriatic nail disease may be due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. A well-known fact is that a familial aggregation of psoriasis exists. Recent studies have linked psoriasis with certain human leukocyte antigen subtypes (eg, Cw6, B13, Bw57, Cw2, Cw11, B27). A T-cell–mediated inflammatory processing is being investigated as part of the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

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Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis includes the following:

Other problems to be considered include idiopathic trachyonychia and punctate keratoderma.

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Skin Biopsy

A nail biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of nail psoriasis in some cases and is usually taken from the nail bed.

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Histologic Findings

Psoriasis can affect any part of the nail unit. Most changes occur in the nail plate. Histologic findings of nail psoriasis include mild-to-moderate hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, serum globules and hemorrhage in the corneum layer, papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia, and spongiosis.

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Overview of Treatment of Nail Psoriasis

Many treatment options are available after the diagnosis of nail psoriasis is made. The treatments focus on improvement of the functional and psychosocial aspects of psoriatic nail disease.

The treatment options for nail psoriasis include topical corticosteroids, intralesional corticosteroids, psoralen plus ultraviolet light A (PUVA),[7] topical fluorouracil,[8] topical calcipotriol,[9] topical anthralin,[10] topical tazarotene,[11, 12] topical cyclosporine,[13] avulsion therapy,[14] and systemic therapy for severe cases. Onychomycosis (if present) requires antifungal therapy for improvement.

For preventive care, keep the nails dry and protect them from trauma to avoid the Koebner effect and possible secondary microbial colonization. In areas of onycholysis, the nail plate should be trimmed to the point of separation for medications to be effective.

At present, no definitive and curative treatment has been agreed upon by medical experts. Discuss all treatment options for psoriatic nail disease with the patient, and choose the best individually tailored regimen.

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Corticosteroids

Topical treatment with high-potency corticosteroid solution or ointment under occlusion with cellophane wrap at bedtime can improve nail psoriasis. Avoid long, continuous therapy with corticosteroids to avoid tachyphylaxis. Also, avoid prolonged occlusion (not to exceed 2 wk). A topical preparation of a combination of high-potency corticosteroid and calcipotriol may benefit some patients.[15]

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5-Fluorouracil

Topical 1% 5-fluorouracil solution or 5% cream applied twice daily to the matrix area for 6 months without occlusion improves pitting and subungual hyperkeratosis.

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PUVA

Psoralen plus ultraviolet light A (PUVA) is very effective for cutaneous psoriasis and can improve nail psoriasis. Both oral and topical PUVA therapies have improved nail psoriasis in 3-6 months. A possible adverse effect of PUVA may be nail discoloration.

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Triamcinolone

Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide suspension of 2.5 mg/mL into the proximal nail fold is very helpful for nail matrix psoriasis (eg, pitting, ridging, leukonychia). This medication may be administered every 4-6 weeks. The proximal nail fold is sprayed first with a refrigerant spray for anesthesia, and the injection is given with a 30-gauge needle.

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Systemic Methotrexate, Retinoids, Cyclosporine

Systemic therapies have been used in patients with severe cutaneous psoriasis. Few studies have shown significant improvement in nail psoriasis with long-term results. At present, 3 systemic medications are most commonly used for psoriasis and nail psoriasis: methotrexate, retinoids,[16] and cyclosporine.[17]

All 3 agents have potential serious adverse effects and toxicities. In most cases, the psoriatic nail disease recurs after the systemic therapy is stopped. Carefully weigh the risk-to-benefit ratio in the treatment of nail psoriasis. Systemic therapies are seldom a first-line therapy for nail psoriasis. Topical treatment with calcipotriol can be used as adjunctive therapy and maintenance therapy with systemic treatment. Biological therapy for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis may have a significant benefit for some patients with psoriatic nail disease.[18]

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Avulsion Therapy

Avulsion therapy by chemical or surgical means can be used as an alternative therapy for psoriatic nail disease. Chemical avulsion therapy includes the use of urea ointment in a special compound to the affected nail under occlusion for 7 days, and the nail is removed atraumatically. Chemical avulsion therapy is painless, involves no blood loss, and is less expensive than surgical avulsion.

Surgical avulsion therapy can be performed for psoriatic nail disease when other treatments have failed. During surgery, the matrix can be electively ablated to prevent regrowth of the nail. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Inform patients of postoperative discomfort, limitations, and possible physical nail disfigurement.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Cindy Li, DO Dermatologist and Cosmetic Surgeon, Department of Dermatology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Group

Cindy Li, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Richard K Scher, MD Adjunct Professor of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine; Professor Emeritus of Dermatology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Richard K Scher, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, International Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Noah Worcester Dermatological Society, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

David F Butler, MD Section Chief of Dermatology, Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System; Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Founding Chair, Department of Dermatology, Scott and White Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, Alpha Omega Alpha, Association of Military Dermatologists, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey Meffert, MD Associate Clinical Professor of Dermatology, University of Texas School of Medicine at San Antonio

Jeffrey Meffert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Mark G Lebwohl, MD Chairman, Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Mark G Lebwohl, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Received none from Amgen for consultant & investigator; Received none from Novartis for consultant & investigator; Received none from Pfizer for consultant & investigator; Received none from Celgene Corporation for consultant & investigator; Received none from Clinuvel for consultant & investigator; Received none from Eli Lilly & Co. for consultant & investigator; Received none from Janssen Ortho Biotech for consultant & investigator; Received none from LEO Pharmaceuticals for consultant & inves.

References
  1. Klaassen KM, van de Kerkhof PC, Pasch MC. Nail Psoriasis: a questionnaire-based survey. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Apr 1. [Medline].

  2. de Vries AC, Bogaards NA, Hooft L, Velema M, Pasch M, Lebwohl M, et al. Interventions for nail psoriasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31. 1:CD007633. [Medline].

  3. Farber EM, Bright RD, Nall ML. Psoriasis. A questionnaire survey of 2,144 patients. Arch Dermatol. 1968 Sep. 98(3):248-59. [Medline].

  4. Langenbruch A, Radtke MA, Krensel M, Jacobi A, Reich K, Augustin M. Nail involvement as a predictor of concomitant psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov. 171(5):1123-8. [Medline].

  5. Al-Mutairi N, Nour T, Al-Rqobah D. Onychomycosis in patients of nail psoriasis on biologic therapy: a randomized, prospective open label study comparing Etanercept, Infliximab and Adalimumab. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013 May. 13(5):625-9. [Medline].

  6. Kouskoukis CE, Scher RK, Ackerman AB. The "oil drop" sign of psoriatic nails. A clinical finding specific for psoriasis. Am J Dermatopathol. 1983 Jun. 5(3):259-62. [Medline].

  7. Handfield-Jones SE, Boyle J, Harman RR. Local PUVA treatment for nail psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 1987 Feb. 116(2):280-1. [Medline].

  8. Fredriksson T. Topically applied fluorouracil in the treatment of psoriatic nails. Arch Dermatol. 1974 Nov. 110(5):735-6. [Medline].

  9. Feliciani C, Zampetti A, Forleo P, Cerritelli L, Amerio P, Proietto G, et al. Nail psoriasis: combined therapy with systemic cyclosporin and topical calcipotriol. J Cutan Med Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr. 8(2):122-5. [Medline].

  10. Yamamoto T, Katayama I, Nishioka K. Topical anthralin therapy for refractory nail psoriasis. J Dermatol. 1998 Apr. 25(4):231-3. [Medline].

  11. Bianchi L, Soda R, Diluvio L, Chimenti S. Tazarotene 0.1% gel for psoriasis of the fingernails and toenails: an open, prospective study. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Jul. 149(1):207-9. [Medline].

  12. Scher RK, Stiller M, Zhu YI. Tazarotene 0.1% gel in the treatment of fingernail psoriasis: a double-blind,randomized, vehicle-controlled study. Cutis. 2001 Nov. 68(5):355-8. [Medline].

  13. Cannavo SP, Guarneri F, Vaccaro M, Borgia F, Guarneri B. Treatment of psoriatic nails with topical cyclosporin: a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled study. Dermatology. 2003. 206(2):153-6. [Medline].

  14. South DA, Farber EM. Urea ointment in the nonsurgical avulsion of nail dystrophies--a reappraisal. Cutis. 1980 Jun. 25(6):609-12. [Medline].

  15. Rigopoulos D, Gregoriou S, Daniel Iii CR, et al. Treatment of nail psoriasis with a two-compound formulation of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate ointment. Dermatology. 2009. 218(4):338-41. [Medline].

  16. Tosti A, Ricotti C, Romanelli P, Cameli N, Piraccini BM. Evaluation of the efficacy of acitretin therapy for nail psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 2009 Mar. 145(3):269-71. [Medline].

  17. Syuto T, Abe M, Ishibuchi H, Ishikawa O. Successful treatment of psoriatic nails with low-dose cyclosporine administration. Eur J Dermatol. 2007 May-Jun. 17(3):248-9. [Medline].

  18. Lawry M. Biological therapy and nail psoriasis. Dermatol Ther. 2007 Jan-Feb. 20(1):60-7. [Medline].

 
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Anatomy of the nail, superior view.
Anatomy of the nail, sagittal view.
Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD.
Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD.
Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD.
Classic distal interphalangeal joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis.
This patient has extensive psoriasis, nail involvement, and joint pain.
 
 
 
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