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Erythema Annulare Centrifugum Workup

  • Author: Marisel Peralta-Abejo, MD, DPDS; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 28, 2016
 

Laboratory Studies

Skin scrapings from lesional sites of erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) should be analyzed after preparation in potassium hydroxide (KOH) to ascertain the presence or the absence of hyphae suggestive of tinea or candidiasis.

Lyme antibody titer helps exclude erythema migrans.

An antinuclear antibody test should be performed in the appropriate clinical setting. Systemic lupus erythematosus is in the differential diagnosis of EAC, and Sjögren syndrome has been reported in association with EAC.

A purified protein derivative (PPD) test and an anergy panel can be used to help determine if an underlying M tuberculosis infection is present.

A complete blood count with differential can be used to evaluate a suspected underlying infection (neutrophilia with bacterial infection; eosinophilia with parasitic infection or hypereosinophilic syndrome).

If compatible with the clinical presentation of erythema annulare centrifugum, liver function studies may be useful because hyperbilirubinemia secondary to cholestasis and elevated transaminase levels secondary to hepatitis have been reported with EAC.

With an appropriate history of gastrointestinal complaints, a stool examination may be useful to search for ova and parasites (ascariasis has been reported with EAC).

For females, serum or urine beta-human chorionic gonadotropin testing may be indicated.

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Imaging Studies

Chest radiography can be used to exclude pulmonary nodules or hilar adenopathy suggestive of tuberculosis, malignancy (primary or metastatic), sarcoidosis, or lymphoma, all of which have been associated with erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC).

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Procedures

A skin punch biopsy may be performed on erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) lesions.

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Histologic Findings

A biopsy is helpful in confirming a diagnosis of erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC). Two histologic subtypes exist: deep and superficial. In the classic or deep type, an intense, superficial and deep lymphocytic or lymphohistiocytic perivascular infiltrate in a coat-sleeve fashion is observed in the middle and lower dermis. No epidermal changes are observed. Clinically, these EAC lesions have indurated borders and are nonscaly and nonpruritic.

In the superficial type of EAC, a more nonspecific perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate about the superficial dermal vessels and edema of the papillary dermis is present. The epidermal changes of parakeratosis and spongiosis may be present. Clinically, these lesions have a scale, may be pruritic, and may have vesiculations.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Marisel Peralta-Abejo, MD, DPDS Dermatology Consultant, Bulacan Primehealth Multi-Specialty Clinic, Meycauayan Doctors Hospital, and Valenzuela Citicare Medical Center

Marisel Peralta-Abejo, MD, DPDS is a member of the following medical societies: Philippine Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine

Michael J Wells, MD, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Warren R Heymann, MD Head, Division of Dermatology, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

Warren R Heymann, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Dermatopathology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Robert J Willard, MD Dermatologist and Mohs Surgeon, Private Practice, Dermatology and Mohs Surgery Center, PC

Robert J Willard, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Andrew D Montemarano, DO Consulting Staff, The Skin Cancer Surgery Center

Andrew D Montemarano, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, MedChi The Maryland State Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Arcuate lesions of erythema annulare centrifugum demonstrate minimal scale.
Superficial erythema annulare centrifugum demonstrates a central clearing and trailing scale behind an advancing, annular, erythematous border.
 
 
 
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