Because most cases of cowpox are mild and self-limited, no treatment is usually required. However, for severe cases with widespread involvement, cidofovir or antivaccinia gammaglobulin may be considered. 
The rationale for using antivaccinia gammaglobulin is the presumed cross-reactivity of antibodies to all viruses of the orthopoxvirus family. Antibodies to vaccinia are known to be protective against smallpox and also may be protective against cowpox.
Vaccinia immune globulin is recommended only for severe cases with widespread involvement. This medication and advice on its use may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Drug Services (404-639-3670). Dose information is based on the use of gammaglobulin for cases of vaccinia.
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