Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Roseola Infantum Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Christopher R Gorman, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 02, 2016
 

History

The classic roseola infantum patient is a 9- to 12-month-old infant in previously good health and who has an abrupt onset of high fever (40°C), which lasts for 3 days with nonspecific complaints. A febrile seizure occurs in 15% of patients. Rapid defervescence is striking with the onset of a mild, pink, morbilliform exanthem.

In roseola infantum patients who are immunocompromised, the onset of symptoms is usually abrupt, with fever, malaise, and CNS and other organ system involvement.

Next

Physical

Despite the high fever, few clinical findings are observed early in the course of roseola infantum. The lack of upper respiratory tract infection is notable, and meningeal signs and encephalopathy are not present. Gastrointestinal symptoms, signs of electrolyte imbalance, or evidence of dehydration are rarely present.

A febrile seizure, with no residual findings, may have occurred.

After an abrupt loss of fever, the characteristic rash appears. The eruption is generalized and subtle. It is composed of either discrete, small, pale pink papules or a blanchable, maculopapular exanthem that is 1-5 mm in diameter. This rash may last 2 days.

The characteristic enanthem (Nagayama spots) consists of erythematous papules on the mucosa of the soft palate and the base of the uvula. The enanthem may be present on the fourth day in two thirds of patients with roseola.

See the images below.

Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Comm Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Comm Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Previous
Next

Causes

The causative agent of roseola infantum was discovered in 1986. The Roseolovirus genus of the beta herpes virus hominis subfamily contains human herpesvirus (HHV)–6 and HHV-7. HHV-6 has 2 variants: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Their major differences are cellular tropism. Debate has existed whether they represent 2 species.

HHV-6A infection is rarely associated with roseola infantum. HHV-6A is associated with infection in adults who are immunocompromised. HHV-6A infection occurs later in life, and details are lacking.

HHV-6B is the cause of roseola in infants. Because seropositivity is nearly 100% in older children, most primary infections with HHV-6B are asymptomatic. HHV-7 has been identified in a few cases of roseola infantum.

Recurrences of roseola infantum are not common. A well-documented case of a 13-month-old child who had a second episode of roseola exists. In the acute phase of the second episode, HHV-7 was identified and excreted in the saliva. This was followed by excretion of HHV-6.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Christopher R Gorman, MD Avenues Dermatology, Private Practice

Christopher R Gorman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA

Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Texas Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Paul Krusinski, MD Director of Dermatology, Fletcher Allen Health Care; Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine

Paul Krusinski, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Franklin Flowers, MD Department of Dermatology, Professor Emeritus Affiliate Associate Professor of Pathology, University of Florida College of Medicine

Franklin Flowers, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Mohs Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments

Medscape Drugs & Diseases wishes to recognize Stephen W White, MD† for his original contributions to this article.

References
  1. Vinnard C, Barton T, Jerud E, Blumberg E. A report of human herpesvirus 6-associated encephalitis in a solid organ transplant recipient and a review of previously published cases. Liver Transpl. 2009 Oct. 15(10):1242-6. [Medline].

  2. Abdel Massih RC, Razonable RR. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after liver transplantation. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jun 7. 15(21):2561-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  3. Kittaka S, Hasegawa S, Ito Y, Ohbuchi N, Suzuki E, Kawano S, et al. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in human herpesvirus-6-infected infants with or without febrile seizures. J Infect Chemother. 2014 Nov. 20 (11):716-21. [Medline].

  4. Zerr DM, Meier AS, Selke SS, et al. A population-based study of primary human herpesvirus 6 infection. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 24. 352(8):768-76. [Medline].

  5. Vianna RA, de Oliveira SA, Camacho LA, et al. Role of human herpesvirus 6 infection in young Brazilian children with rash illnesses. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Jun. 27(6):533-7. [Medline].

  6. Magalhães Ide M, Martins RV, Vianna RO, Moysés N, Afonso LA, Oliveira SA, et al. Detection of human herpesvirus 7 infection in young children presenting with exanthema subitum. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011 May. 106(3):371-3. [Medline].

  7. Razonable RR, Lautenschlager I. Impact of human herpes virus 6 in liver transplantation. World J Hepatol. 2010 Sep 27. 2(9):345-53. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  8. Ward KN. The natural history and laboratory diagnosis of human herpesviruses-6 and -7 infections in the immunocompetent. J Clin Virol. 2005 Mar. 32(3):183-93. [Medline].

  9. Ward KN, Andrews NJ, Verity CM, Miller E, Ross EM. Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 each cause significant neurological morbidity in Britain and Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Jun. 90(6):619-23. [Medline].

  10. Higashimoto Y, Ohta A, Nishiyama Y, et al. Development of a human herpesvirus 6 species-specific immunoblotting assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Apr. 50(4):1245-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Stone RC, Micali GA, Schwartz RA. Roseola infantum and its causal human herpesviruses. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Apr. 53(4):397-403. [Medline].

  12. Rapaport D, Engelhard D, Tagger G, Or R, Frenkel N. Antiviral prophylaxis may prevent human herpesvirus-6 reactivation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002 Mar. 4(1):10-6. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Roseola infantum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.