Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Frontal Lobe Syndromes Medication

  • Author: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
 
Updated: Apr 11, 2016
 
 

Medication Summary

No medications are available to help frontal injuries.

Drugs that help memory in Alzheimer dementia are rarely of benefit for frontal lobe deficits or problems.

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAAP Section Head of Pediatric Neurology, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Psychiatry, Tulane University School of Medicine

Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: Academic Pediatric Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA Chief of Neurology, Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; Professor of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center

Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Joseph Quinn, MD, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Portland VA Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University

Joseph Quinn, MD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, Society for Neuroscience, Society for Pediatric Radiology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Alberto J Espay, MD, MSc Associate Professor, Director of Clinical Research, Gardner Family Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Alberto J Espay, MD, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology and Movement Disorders Society

Disclosure: Abbott Consulting fee Consulting; Chelsea therapeutics Consulting fee Consulting; Novartis Honoraria Speaking and teaching; TEVA Consulting fee Consulting; NIH Grant/research funds K23 Career Development Award; Eli Lilly Consulting fee Consulting; Great Lakes Neurotechnologies Other; Michael J Fox Foundation Grant/research funds Other; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Royalty Book; American Academy of Neurology Honoraria Speaking and teaching

References
  1. Mesulam MM. The Human Frontal Lobes: Transcending the Default Mode through Continent Encoding. DT Stuss and RT Knight. Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. Oxford: 2002. 8-30.

  2. Bonelli RM, Cummings JL. Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007. 9(2):141-51. [Medline].

  3. Cruz-Oliver DM, Malmstrom TK, Allen CM, Tumosa N, Morley JE. The Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University Mental Status Exam (SLUMS Exam) and the Mini-Mental Status Exam as Predictors of Mortality and Institutionalization. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012. 16(7):636-41. [Medline].

  4. Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B. The FAB: a Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside. Neurology. 2000 Dec 12. 55(11):1621-6. [Medline].

  5. Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bedirian V, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Apr. 53(4):695-9. [Medline].

  6. Kopp B, Rösser N, Tabeling S, Stürenburg HJ, de Haan B, Karnath HO, et al. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. BMC Neurol. 2013 Nov 16. 13:179. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Reitan RM. The relation of the trail making test to organic brain damage. J Consult Psychol. 1955 Oct. 19(5):393-4. [Medline].

  8. Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R, Moll FT, Bramati IE, Andreiuolo PA. The cerebral correlates of set-shifting: an fMRI study of the trail making test. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002 Dec. 60(4):900-5. [Medline].

  9. Pendleton MG, Heaton RK, Lehman RA, Hulihan D. Diagnostic utility of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test in neuropsychological evaluations. J Clin Neuropsychol. 1982 Dec. 4(4):307-17. [Medline].

  10. Wu LJ, Sitburana O, Davidson A, Jankovic J. Applause sign in Parkinsonian disorders and Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 2008 Dec 15. 23(16):2307-11. [Medline].

  11. Hama S, Yamashita H, Shigenobu M, Watanabe A, Kurisu K, Yamawaki S. Post-stroke affective or apathetic depression and lesion location: left frontal lobe and bilateral basal ganglia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007 Apr. 257(3):149-52. [Medline].

  12. Müller-Vahl KR, Kaufmann J, Grosskreutz J, Dengler R, Emrich HM, Peschel T. Prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in Tourette Syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry and magnetization transfer imaging. BMC Neurosci. 2009. 10:47. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  13. Seltman RE, Matthews BR. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and management. CNS Drugs. 2012 Oct 1. 26(10):841-70. [Medline].

  14. Gorno-Tempini ML, Brambati SM, Ginex V, Ogar J, Dronkers NF, Marcone A. The logopenic/phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia. Neurology. 2008 Oct 14. 71(16):1227-34. [Medline].

  15. Ismail Z, Nguyen MQ, Fischer CE, Schweizer TA, Mulsant BH. Neuroimaging of delusions in Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatry Res. 2012 May 31. 202(2):89-95. [Medline].

  16. Kerklaan BJ, van Berckel BN, Herholz K, Dols A, van der Flier WM, Scheltens P, et al. The added value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2014 Nov. 29(7):607-13. [Medline].

  17. Tsai RM, Boxer AL. Treatment of frontotemporal dementia. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2014 Nov. 16(11):319. [Medline].

  18. Baker M, Mackenzie IR, Pickering-Brown SM, et al. Mutations in progranulin cause tau-negative frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17. Nature. 2006 Aug 24. 442(7105):916-9. [Medline].

  19. Bech-Azeddine R, Hogh P, Juhler M, Gjerris F, Waldemar G. Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus: clinical comorbidity correlated with cerebral biopsy findings and outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunting. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Feb. 78(2):157-61. [Medline].

  20. Benson DF, Miller BL. Frontal lobes, clinical and anatomic aspects. Feinberg TE, Farah MJ, eds. Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology. New York: McGraw Hill; 1997. 401-8.

  21. Cairns NJ, Bigio EH, Mackenzie IR, et al. Neuropathologic diagnostic and nosologic criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: consensus of the Consortium for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Acta Neuropathol. 2007 Jul. 114(1):5-22. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  22. Damasio AR. The frontal lobes. Heilman KM, Valenstein E, eds. Clinical Neuropsychology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford Univerisity Press; 1993. 409-60.

  23. Kennerley SW, Wallis JD. Evaluating choices by single neurons in the frontal lobe: outcome value encoded across multiple decision variables. Eur J Neurosci. 2009 May. 29(10):2061-73. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  24. Laisney M, Matuszewski V, Mezenge F, Belliard S, de la Sayette V, Eustache F. The underlying mechanisms of verbal fluency deficit in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia. J Neurol. 2009 Apr 14. [Medline].

  25. Lezak MD. Neuropsychological Assessment. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford; 1995.

  26. Luria AR. The Working Brain. An Introduction to Neuropsychology. Haig B, trans. New York: Basic Books; 1973.

  27. Marmarou A, Bergsneider M, Klinge P, Relkin N, Black PM. The value of supplemental prognostic tests for the preoperative assessment of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2005 Sep. 57(3 Suppl):S17-28; discussion ii-v. [Medline].

  28. Mesulam MM. Principles of Behavioral Neurology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford; 2000.

  29. Nagaratnam N, Bou-Haidar P, Leung H. Confused and disturbed behavior in the elderly following silent frontal lobe infarction. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2003 Nov-Dec. 18(6):333-9. [Medline].

  30. Neumann M, Sampathu DM, Kwong LK, et al. Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science. 2006 Oct 6. 314(5796):130-3. [Medline].

  31. Nyatsanza S, Shetty T, Gregory C, Lough S, Dawson K, Hodges JR. A study of stereotypic behaviours in Alzheimer's disease and frontal and temporal variant frontotemporal dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Oct. 74(10):1398-402. [Medline].

  32. Ondo WG, Chan LL, Levy JK. Vascular parkinsonism: clinical correlates predicting motor improvement after lumbar puncture. Mov Disord. 2002 Jan. 17(1):91-7. [Medline].

  33. Stout JC, Wyman MF, Johnson SA, Peavy GM, Salmon DP. Frontal behavioral syndromes and functional status in probable Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003 Nov-Dec. 11(6):683-6. [Medline].

  34. Takahashi YK, Roesch MR, Stalnaker TA, Haney RZ, Calu DJ, Taylor AR. The orbitofrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area are necessary for learning from unexpected outcomes. Neuron. 2009 Apr 30. 62(2):269-80. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  35. Vecera SP, Rizzo M. Spatial attention: normal processes and their breakdown. Neurol Clin. 2003 Aug. 21(3):575-607. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Axial brain MRI of a patient with progressive tremorless parkinsonism and frontal-predominant dementia (Mini Mental State Examination = 23/30; Frontal Assessment Battery = 10/18; abnormal clock drawing task and additional constructional impairment) with moderate ideomotor apraxia. The MRI demonstrates predominantly frontal (A) and anterior temporal atrophy (B) suggestive of frontotemporal dementia.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.