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Postherpetic Neuralgia

  • Author: W Alvin McElveen, MD; Chief Editor: Robert A Egan, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 24, 2015
 

Background

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection that usually presents as a childhood infection of varicella (ie, chicken pox). The pathogen is human herpesvirus-3 (HHV-3), also known as the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Following the acute phase, the virus enters the sensory nervous system, where it is harbored in the geniculate, trigeminal, or dorsal root ganglia and remains dormant for many years. With advancing age or immunocompromised states, the virus reactivates and an eruption (ie, shingles) occurs. Even after the acute rash subsides, pain can persist or recur in shingles-affected areas. This condition is known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Hypopigmented rash in thoracic dermatome of posthe Hypopigmented rash in thoracic dermatome of postherpetic lesion.
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Pathophysiology

Some patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) appear to have abnormal function of unmyelinated nociceptors and sensory loss (usually minimal). Pain and temperature detection systems are hypersensitive to light mechanical stimulation, leading to severe pain (allodynia). Allodynia may be related to formation of new connections involving central pain transmission neurons. Other patients with PHN may have severe, spontaneous pain without allodynia, possibly secondary to increased spontaneous activity in deafferented central neurons or reorganization of central connections. An imbalance involving loss of large inhibitory fibers and an intact or increased number of small excitatory fibers has been suggested. This input on an abnormal dorsal horn containing deafferented hypersensitive neurons supports the clinical observation that both central and peripheral areas are involved in the production of pain.

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Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

Frequency 1 month after onset of shingles is 9-14.3% and at 3 months is about 5%. At 1 year, 3% continue to have severe pain.

Family history as a risk factor for herpes zoster has been described. In a case-control study of 504 patients and 523 controls, Hicks et al found that the patients were more likely to report blood relatives with herpes zoster than the controls (39% vs 11%, p< .001). This risk was higher in patients with multiple blood relatives with herpes zoster compared with those with a single blood relative with herpes zoster.[1]

International

A study from Iceland demonstrated variations in risk of PHN associated with different age groups. No patient younger than 50 years described severe pain at any time. Patients older than 60 years described severe pain: 6% at 1 month and 4% at 3 months from the onset of shingles.[2]

Mortality/Morbidity

See the list below:

  • Postherpetic neuralgia is not fatal.
  • Patients may experience significant pain for a prolonged period of time.
  • Older age appears to be the most significant risk factor for developing PHN.

Sex

No predilection for developing PHN is known. Although 65% of patients in a study by Watson et al were women, this was believed to mirror the usual predominance of women in this age group.

Age

The association between greater age and PHN is strong.[3] At age 60 years, approximately 60% of patients with shingles develop PHN, and at age 70 years, 75% develop PHN.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

W Alvin McElveen, MD Director, Stroke Unit, Lakewood Ranch Medical Center; Neurologist, Manatee Memorial Hospital

W Alvin McElveen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, Southern Clinical Neurological Society, American Stroke Association, American Medical Association, American Society of Neuroimaging

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Douglas Sinclair, DO Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Blake Medical Center and Bradenton Neurology, Inc

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Robert A Egan, MD Director of Neuro-Ophthalmology and Stroke Service, St Helena Hospital

Robert A Egan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Heart Association, North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, Oregon Medical Association

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Biogen Idec for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Teva for speaking and teaching.

Additional Contributors

Joseph Carcione, Jr, DO, MBA Consultant in Neurology and Medical Acupuncture, Medical Management and Organizational Consulting, Central Westchester Neuromuscular Care, PC; Medical Director, Oxford Health Plans

Joseph Carcione, Jr, DO, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Ralph F Gonzalez, MD Private Practice, Bradenton Neurology, Inc; Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Blake Hospital, Lakewood Ranch Medical Center, Manatee Memorial Hospital

Ralph F Gonzalez, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology and Florida Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Hypopigmented rash in thoracic dermatome of postherpetic lesion.
 
 
 
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