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Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Medication

  • Author: Danette C Taylor, MS, DO, FACN; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
 
Updated: Sep 04, 2015
 

Medication Summary

Steroids are used to treat the inflammation of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Pain relief usually occurs rapidly, ie, within 24-72 hours.[9] Continue treatment at the initial dose for a short time (ie, 7-10 d) after pain resolves, then taper gradually. If no response to steroid therapy has occurred within 72 hours, the diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome should be reevaluated.

If a patient is unable to tolerate steroid therapy, other immunosuppressive therapy may be considered.

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

Reduce pain and inflammation; diminish the size of the inflammatory mass.

Prednisone (Sterapred)

 

May decrease inflammation by reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity. Stabilizes lysosomal membranes and also suppresses lymphocytes and antibody production.

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Immunosuppressive agents

Class Summary

Decrease autoimmune reaction.

Methotrexate (Trexall)

 

Antimetabolite used to treat many autoimmune processes. The mode of action is not known; this drug does interfere with DNA synthesis.

Azathioprine (Imuran)

 

Immunosuppressive agent that works primarily on T cells. Works very slowly; may require 6-12 mo of trial prior to effect. Up to 10% of patients may have idiosyncratic reaction disallowing use. Do not allow WBC count to drop below 3000/µL or lymphocyte count to drop below 1000/µL.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Danette C Taylor, MS, DO, FACN Medical Director, Movement Disorders Program, Beaumont Health; Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Danette C Taylor, MS, DO, FACN is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Osteopathic Association, International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society, American College of Osteopathic Neurologists and Psychiatrists, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Allergan for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Teva Pharmaceuticals for speaking and teaching.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Florian P Thomas, MD, PhD, Drmed, MA, MS Director, National MS Society Multiple Sclerosis Center; Professor and Director, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Adjunct Professor of Physical Therapy, Associate Professor, Institute for Molecular Virology, St Louis University School of Medicine; Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine

Florian P Thomas, MD, PhD, Drmed, MA, MS is a member of the following medical societies: Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals, American Academy of Neurology, American Neurological Association, Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS Professor Emeritus of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, State University of New York Upstate Medical University; Neuroscience Director, Department of Neurology, Crouse Irving Memorial Hospital

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of International Physicians, American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pain Medicine, American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, National Association of Managed Care Physicians, American College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Eric R Eggenberger, MS, DO, FAAN Professor, Vice-Chairman, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine and Human Medicine, Michigan State University; Director of Michigan State University Ocular Motility Laboratory; Director of National Multiple Sclerosis Society Clinic, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine

Eric R Eggenberger, MS, DO, FAAN is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Osteopathic Association, North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Biogen; Genzyme; Novartis; Teva <br/>Received research grant from: Biogen; Genzyme; Novartis<br/>Received consulting fee from Biogen for consulting; Received consulting fee from Teva for consulting; Received consulting fee from Acorda for consulting; Received grant/research funds from Novartis for independent contractor; Received honoraria from Genentech for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Genzyme for speaking and teaching.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Kenneth A Mankowski, DO to the development and writing of this article.

References
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MRI of a 40-year-old man with severe periorbital pain ocular sinister (OS; ie, left eye), complete oculomotor nerve palsy OS, and partial abducens nerve palsy OS. Axial imaging without (left) and with (right) enhancement demonstrates nonspecific fullness involving the left cavernous sinus, consistent with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome within the context of the history. Treatment with steroids produced complete resolution of symptoms. Image courtesy of Eric Eggenberger, DO.
Coronal T1-weighted MRI with (below) and without (above) enhancement demonstrates left cavernous sinus fullness consistent with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS). The imaging features are nonspecific and must be placed into the context of the history, examination, and clinical course to avoid misdiagnosis of infiltrating, infectious, or neoplastic cavernous sinus processes. Image courtesy of Eric Eggenberger, DO.
 
 
 
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