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Striatonigral Degeneration Workup

  • Author: Ahmad El Kouzi, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 26, 2015
 

Approach Considerations

No laboratory studies are diagnostic for multiple system atrophy with predominantly parkinsonian features (MSA-P). If a family history is noted, then testing for the SCA-3 mutation can identify Machado-Joseph disease.

Electromyography

Electromyography shows denervation of the external sphincter (urethral or anal); however, normal findings do not exclude the disease.

Clonidine growth hormone test

Studies show that after infusion of clonidine, serum growth hormone concentration does not subsequently rise in patients with multiple system atrophy. In contrast, the normal response, an increase in secretion, is found in Parkinson disease, pure autonomic failure, and control subjects.[18, 19]

Neuropsychiatric evaluation

Studies suggest that cognitive impairment is more common than previously thought in multiple system atrophy. Due to the nature of the deficits associated with this disease, the standard mental status examination has been found to be a poor tool for assessment. Neuropsychiatric testing is more sensitive and may be more a more helpful resource in multiple system atrophy.[16]

Sleep studies

Sleep disorders, particularly nocturnal stridor and REM sleep behavior disorder, are common in multiple system atrophy. Formal sleep studies should be considered, as research suggests that treatment can improve survival and quality of life.[20]

REM sleep behavior disorder is common in Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian disorders including striatonigral degeneration (MSA-P). Clonazepam is an effective treatment for many patients. Nocturnal stridor is specific to MSA and is produced by vocal cord dysfunction during sleep. CPAP is appropriate for long term treatment.[21]

Histologic findings

Findings in MSA-P include widespread glial cytoplasmic inclusions (primarily in oligodendrocytes) and, to a lesser degree, neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal nuclear inclusions. Immunostaining of inclusion bodies reveals the presence of alpha-synuclein fibrils.[22]

Other tests

Autonomic tests for orthostatic vital signs such as the tilt-table test and urodynamic studies can be conducted. Scintigraphy with iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has recently shown utility in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; this method shows high sensitivity and adequate specificity in this field.[23]

A study measuring the clinical utility of skin biopsy for differentiating between Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy concluded that detection of alpha-synuclein aggregates on cutaneous nerves in distal body sites is insufficiently sensitive; however, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IEND) may be useful for this purpose. Further study is needed.[24]

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Imaging Studies

Computed tomography (CT) scans may show cerebellar or brainstem atrophy late in the course of the disease.

A study using single-photon emission CT (SPECT) scanning revealed significantly decreased cerebellar and dorsolateral prefrontal perfusion in patients with multiple system atrophy, relative to that of control subjects.[16]

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show 1 or more of the following[25] :

  • Atrophy of the putamen is best seen on inversion-recovery coronal sequences and/or putaminal hypointense signal on T2-weighted sequences. In rare instances, hyperintense bands lateral to the putamen may be seen.
  • There may be narrowing and hypointensity of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra, which can give the appearance of fusion between the pars reticularis and the red nucleus.
  • In a retrospective review, identification of the pontine "hot-cross bun" sign on T-2 weighted MRI sequences supported the diagnosis of MSA. [26]

Positron emission tomography (PET) scans demonstrate decreased postsynaptic D2-receptor density and impaired uptake of fluoro-L-dopa.[27] The recently approved DaTscan single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging can help confirm the diagnosis of parkinsonism but does not distinguish idiopathic Parkinson disease from multiple system atrophy.[28]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Ahmad El Kouzi, MD Resident Physician, Department of Neurology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Ahmad El Kouzi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA Professor of Neurology, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Neurology, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Paula K Rauschkolb, DO Assistant Professor of Neurology and Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth; Consulting Staff Physician, Department of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center

Paula K Rauschkolb, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Medical Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Society for Neuro-Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Selim R Benbadis, MD Professor, Director of Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida College of Medicine

Selim R Benbadis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Medical Association, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, American Epilepsy Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cyberonics; Eisai; Lundbeck; Sunovion; UCB; Upsher-Smith<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Cyberonics; Eisai; Glaxo Smith Kline; Lundbeck; Sunovion; UCB<br/>Received research grant from: Cyberonics; Lundbeck; Sepracor; Sunovion; UCB; Upsher-Smith.

Acknowledgements

Maritza Arroyo-Muñiz, MD Associate Program Director, Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, University of Puerto Rico

Maritza Arroyo-Muñiz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, National Stroke Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Syed T Arshad, MD Staff Physician, Department of Neurology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center

Syed T Arshad, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Arif I Dalvi, MD Director, Movement Disorders Center, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Clinical Associate Professor of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker Medical School

Arif I Dalvi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: European Neurological Society and Movement Disorders Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Nestor Galvez-Jimenez, MD, MSc, MHA Chairman, Department of Neurology, Program Director, Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Division of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Florida

Nestor Galvez-Jimenez, MD, MSc, MHA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American College of Physicians, and Movement Disorders Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Reference Salary Employment

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