Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Catatonia Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 09, 2015
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

In addition to the conditions listed in the differential diagnosis, other problems to be considered include the following:

  • Acute stress disorder
  • Astrocytoma
  • Autistic disorder[53]
  • Brief reactive psychosis with catatonia
  • Carotid disease
  • Cephalosporin-associated neurotoxicity[54]
  • Cocaine-induced leukoencephalopathy[55]
  • Conversion disorder[56, 57]
  • Dystonia
  • Encephalopathy - HIV infection
  • Extrapontine myelinolysis
  • Fabry disease
  • Hallervorden-Spatz disease
  • Huntington disease
  • Inherited metabolic disorders
  • Inherited neurometabolic disorders
  • Latah betul[29, 30, 31]
  • Low-grade astrocytoma
  • Major depression, single episode with catatonic features
  • Manganese neurotoxicity[58]
  • Medication adverse effect - Levetiracetam, zotepine
  • Mega cisterna magna[59]
  • Meningioma
  • Mood disorders
  • NMS
  • Neurosarcoidosis
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Parkinson disease
  • Parkinson-plus syndromes
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome[60]
  • Prion disease[24]
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Renal failure[54]
  • Schizophrenia
  • Stupor
  • Subdural hematoma
  • Substance intoxication - Cyclosporine, phencyclidine
  • Syphilis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus[61]
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • Thermal injury
  • Torticollis
  • Transplantation of kidney and liver[62]
  • Tuberculosis
  • Vegetative states
  • Von Economo encephalitis
  • Zaghrouta[56, 57]
  • Zolpidem withdrawal[63]

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH Assistant Professor, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Active Staff, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital; Courtesy Staff, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center

James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Academy of Neurology, International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society

Disclosure: Received royalty from Medscape for other; Received royalty from Neuroscience-Net, LLC for other; Received grant/research funds from National Institutes of Health for other.

Chief Editor

Selim R Benbadis, MD Professor, Director of Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida College of Medicine

Selim R Benbadis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Medical Association, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, American Epilepsy Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cyberonics; Eisai; Lundbeck; Sunovion; UCB; Upsher-Smith<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Cyberonics; Eisai; Glaxo Smith Kline; Lundbeck; Sunovion; UCB<br/>Received research grant from: Cyberonics; Lundbeck; Sepracor; Sunovion; UCB; Upsher-Smith.

Acknowledgements

Nestor Galvez-Jimenez, MD, MSc, MHA Chairman, Department of Neurology, Program Director, Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Division of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Florida

Nestor Galvez-Jimenez, MD, MSc, MHA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American College of Physicians, and Movement Disorders Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Acknowledgments

The research for this article was supported by the Essel Foundation; the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD); the Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc; the National Institutes of Health; and the Department of Psychiatry of Bellevue Hospital Center and the New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York. The cooperation of the Health and Hospitals Corporation of the City of New York is gratefully acknowledged.

References
  1. Ungvari GS, Caroff SN, Gerevich J. The Catatonia Conundrum: Evidence of Psychomotor Phenomena as a Symptom Dimension in Psychotic Disorders. Schizophr Bull. 2009 Sep 23. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  2. Ungvari GS, Goggins W, Leung SK, Lee E, Gerevich J. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia') III. Latent class analysis of the catatonic syndrome. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Feb 1. 33(1):81-5. [Medline].

  3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.

  4. Lafargue T, Brasic J. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: a central sensory disturbance. Med Hypotheses. 2000 Oct. 55(4):314-8. [Medline].

  5. Zervas IM, Theleritis C, Soldatos CR. Using ECT in schizophrenia: A review from a clinical perspective. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Apr 12. [Medline].

  6. Kannabiran M, McCarthy J. The mental health needs of people with autism spectrum disorders. Psychiatry. 2009 Oct. 8(10):398-401.

  7. Brasic JR, Zagzag D, Kowalik S, et al. Clinical manifestations of progressive catatonia. German Journal of Psychiatry [serial online]. 2000. [Full Text].

  8. Brasic JR, Zagzag D, Kowalik S, et al. Progressive catatonia. Psychol Rep. 1999 Feb. 84(1):239-46. [Medline].

  9. Gaind GS, Rosebush PI, Mazurek MF. Lorazepam treatment of acute and chronic catatonia in two mentally retarded brothers. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 Jan. 55(1):20-3. [Medline].

  10. Hare DJ, Malone C. Catatonia and autistic spectrum disorders. Autism. 2004 Jun. 8(2):183-95. [Medline].

  11. Baguley IJ. The excitatory:inhibitory ratio model (EIR model): An integrative explanation of acute autonomic overactivity syndromes. Med Hypotheses. 2008. 70(1):26-35. [Medline].

  12. Coconcea C. Zolpidem in treatment resistant catatonia: 2 case reports and literature review [abstract]. Schizophrenia Res. 2008. 98:134.

  13. Uzbay IT. L-NAME precipitates catatonia during ethanol withdrawal in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2001 Feb 15. 119(1):71-6. [Medline].

  14. Kahlbaum KL. Catatonia. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1874/1973.

  15. Vesperini S, Papettia F, Pringuey D. Existe-t-il un lien entre catatonie et syndrome malin des neuroleptiques ? [Are catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome related conditions?]. L’Encéphale. 2009.

  16. Lee J, Teoh T, Lee TS. Catatonia and psychosis associated with sibutramine: a case report and pathophysiologic correlation. J Psychosom Res. 2008 Jan. 64(1):107-9. [Medline].

  17. Neto B. Catatonia with left temporal lesion on MRI: crossing borders. European Psychiatry. 2009. 24 supplement 1:S727.

  18. Wachtel L. Catatonia in autism: Etiology, incidence and treatment [abstract]. European Psychiatry. 2008. 23:S402-S402.

  19. Wachtel LE, Contrucci-Kuhn SA, Griffin M, Thompson A, Dhossche DM, Reti IM. ECT for self-injury in an autistic boy. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Jul. 18(7):458-63. [Medline].

  20. Wachtel LE, Griffin M, Reti IM. Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Man With Autism Experiencing Severe Depression, Catatonia, and Self-Injury. J ECT. 2009 May 27. [Medline].

  21. Dhossche DM, Reti IM, Wachtel LE. Catatonia and autism: a historical review, with implications for electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT. 2009 Mar. 25(1):19-22. [Medline].

  22. Wachtel LE. Catatonia in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. European Psychiatry. 2009. 24, Supplement 1:S737.

  23. Kakooza-Mwesige A, Wachtel LE, Dhossche DM. Catatonia in autism: implications across the life span. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008 Sep. 17(6):327-35. [Medline].

  24. Gonzalez Oliveros R, Saracibar N, Gutierrez M, DNA Bank UPV/EHU, Munon T, Gonzalez-Pinto A. Catatonia due to a prion familial disease. Schizophrenia Research. 2009 Mar. 108, Issues 1-3:309-10.

  25. Scozzafava J, Aladdin Y, Jickling G, Asdaghi N, Hussain M, Giuliani F. Stuporous catatonia and white matter lesions. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Oct. 16(10):1328, 1386. [Medline].

  26. Blanc F, Berna F, Fleury M, Lita L, Ruppert E, Ferriby D, et al. [Inaugural psychotic events in multiple sclerosis?]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2009 Sep 5. [Medline].

  27. Le Foll J, Pelletier A. Symptômes psychiatriques d’une encéphalite paranéoplasique à anticorps antirécepteurs NMDA : à propos d’un cas [Psychiatric symptoms of a paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: A case report]. L'Encéphale. 2009.

  28. Nielsen N, Nielsen NB. [Malignant neuroleptic syndrome in a 15-year old girl after a single injection of a high-dose neuroleptic]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 Aug 5. 153(32):2239-40. [Medline].

  29. Winzeler RL. Latah in Southeast Asia: the history and ethnography of a culture-bound syndrome. Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press; 1995.

  30. Simons RC. Latah: a culture-specific elaboration of the startle reflex [film]. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Audiovisual Center; 1983.

  31. Tanner CM, Chamberland J. Latah in Jakarta, Indonesia. Mov Disord. 2001 May. 16(3):526-9. [Medline].

  32. Fink M, Bush G, Francis A. Catatonia: a treatable disorder, occasionally recognized. Directions in Psychiatry. 1993. 13(3):1-8.

  33. Escobar R, Rios A, Montoya ID, et al. Clinical and cerebral blood flow changes in catatonic patients treated with ECT. J Psychosom Res. 2000 Dec. 49(6):423-9. [Medline].

  34. Chalasani P, Healy D, Morriss R. Presentation and frequency of catatonia in new admissions to two acute psychiatricadmission units in India and Wales. Psychol Med. 2005 Nov. 35(11):1667-75. [Medline].

  35. Peralta V, Cuesta MJ, Serrano JF, Mata I. The Kahlbaum syndrome: a study of its clinical validity, nosological status, and relationship with schizophrenia and mood disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1997 Jan-Feb. 38(1):61-7. [Medline].

  36. Vorspan F, Cornic F, Mathis D, Cohen D, Lepine JP. Catatonia in a French forensic psychiatric facility: Frequency, prognosis and treatment [abstract]. European Psychiatry. 2008. 23:S332-S333.

  37. Benegal V, Hingorani S, Khanna S. Idiopathic catatonia: validity of the concept. Psychopathology. 1993. 26(1):41-6. [Medline].

  38. Johnson J. Catatonia: the tension insanity. Br J Psychiatry. 1993 Jun. 162:733-8. [Medline].

  39. Rogers D. Catatonia: a contemporary approach. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1991 Summer. 3(3):334-40. [Medline].

  40. Guggenheim FG, Babigian HM. Catatonic schizophrenia: epidemiology and clinical course. A 7-year register study of 798 cases. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1974 Apr. 158(4):291-305. [Medline].

  41. Abrams R, Taylor MA. Catatonia. A prospective clinical study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976 May. 33(5):579-81. [Medline].

  42. Ungvari GS, Leung SK, Ng FS, et al. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia'): I. Demographic and clinical correlates in the chronic phase. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jan. 29(1):27-38. [Medline].

  43. Carroll BT. Kahlbaum's catatonia revisited. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001 Oct. 55(5):431-6. [Medline].

  44. Bonnot O, Tanguy ML, Consoli A, Cornic F, Graindorge C, Laurent C, et al. Does catatonia influence the phenomenology of childhood onset schizophrenia beyond motor symptoms?. Psychiatry Res. 2008 Apr 15. 158(3):356-62. [Medline].

  45. Cornic F, Consoli A, Tanguy ML, Bonnot O, Périsse D, Tordjman S, et al. Association of adolescent catatonia with increased mortality and morbidity: evidence from a prospective follow-up study. Schizophr Res. 2009 Sep. 113(2-3):233-40. [Medline].

  46. Haouzir S, Lemoine X, Desbordes M, Follet M, Meunier C, Baarir Z, et al. The role of coagulation marker fibrin D-dimer in early diagnosis of catatonia. Psychiatry Res. 2009 Jun 30. 168(1):78-85. [Medline].

  47. Krishna KR, Maniar RC, Harbishettar VS. A comparative study of "idiopathic catatonia’’ with catatonia in schizophrenia. Asian J Psych. 2011. 4:129-33.

  48. Fischel T, Krivoy A, Brenner I, Weizman A. Priapism as an unusual manifestation of catatonia: a case report. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Apr 30. 33(3):570. [Medline].

  49. Chouinard MJ, Nguyen DK, Clement JF, Bruneau MA. Catatonia induced by levetiracetam. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Feb. 8(1):303-7. [Medline].

  50. Youssef NA, Benazzi F, Desan PH. Levofloxacin-induced catatonia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jun 15. 33(4):741-2. [Medline].

  51. Reddy NN, Rao NP, Venkatasubramanian G, Arasappa R, Behere RV, Divakaran A, et al. Rimonabant-induced catatonia in schizophrenia: A case report. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2009 Nov. 3 (4):237-239.

  52. Rizos DV, Peritogiannis V, Gkogkos C. Catatonia in the intensive care unit. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb. 33(1):e1-2. [Medline].

  53. Brasic JR, Barnett JY, Will MV, Nadrich RH, Sheitman BB, Ahmad R, et al. Dyskinesias differentiate autistic disorder from catatonia. CNS Spectr. 2000 Dec. 5(12):19-22. [Medline].

  54. Denysenko L, Nicolson SE. Cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin neurotoxicity and catatonia in a patient on hemodialysis. Psychosomatics. 2011 Jul-Aug. 52(4):379-83. [Medline].

  55. Anbarasan D, Campion P, Howard J. Drug-induced leukoencephalopathy presenting as catatonia. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb. 33(1):85.e1-3. [Medline].

  56. Brasic JR, Andrews SR, Housain B, Alexander M, Mohamed M. Characterization of zaghrouta, an expression of happiness in the Middle East, a component of the differential diagnosis of psychogenic disorders. 2nd International Conference on Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Other Conversion Disorders. 2008 Apr. 78-79.

  57. Brasic JR, Alexander M, Mohamed M. Differentiation of zaghrouta, an expression of happiness by women in the Middle East, from medical disease. Southern Medical Journal. 2003 Oct. 96(Suppl10):S35.

  58. Jain S, Ferrando SJ. Manganese neurotoxicity presenting with depression, psychosis and catatonia. Psychosomatics. 2011 Jan-Feb. 52(1):74-7. [Medline].

  59. Kumar S, Sur S, Singh A. Mega cisterna magna associated with recurrent catatonia: a case report. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Aug 15. 70(4):e19. [Medline].

  60. Spiegel DR, Varnell C Jr. A case of catatonia due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome treated successfully with antihypertensives and adjunctive olanzapine. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 May-Jun. 33(3):302.e3-5. [Medline].

  61. Brelinski L, Cottencin O, Guardia D, Anguill JD, Queyrel V, Hatron PY. Catatonia and systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study of three cases. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 Jan-Feb. 31(1):90-2. [Medline].

  62. Kalivas KK, Bourgeois JA. Catatonia after liver and kidney transplantation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 Mar-Apr. 31(2):196-8. [Medline].

  63. Hsieh MH, Chen TC, Chiu NY, Chang CC. Zolpidem-related withdrawal catatonia: a case report. Psychosomatics. 2011 Sep-Oct. 52(5):475-7. [Medline].

  64. Lahutte B, Cornic F, Bonnot O, Consoli A, An-Gourfinkel I, Amoura Z. Multidisciplinary approach of organic catatonia in children and adolescents may improve treatment decision making. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 7. [Medline].

  65. Sienaert P, Rooseleer J, De Fruyt J. Measuring catatonia: a systematic review of rating scales. J Affect Disord. 2011 Dec. 135(1-3):1-9. [Medline].

  66. Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, Dowling F, Francis A. Catatonia. I. Rating scale and standardized examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Feb. 93(2):129-36. [Medline].

  67. Larsen HH, Ritchie JC, McNutt MD, Musselman DL. Pulmonary embolism in a patient with catatonia: an old disease, changing times. Psychosomatics. 2011 Jul-Aug. 52(4):387-91. [Medline].

  68. England ML, Ongür D, Konopaske GT, Karmacharya R. Catatonia in psychotic patients: clinical features and treatment response. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Spring. 23(2):223-6. [Medline].

  69. Peralta V, Campos MS, de Jalon EG, Cuesta MJ. DSM-IV catatonia signs and criteria in first-episode, drug-naive, psychotic patients: psychometric validity and response to antipsychotic medication. Schizophr Res. 2010 May. 118(1-3):168-75. [Medline].

  70. Van Den Eede F, Van Hecke J, Van Dalfsen A, Van den Bossche B, Cosyns P, Sabbe BG. The use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of catatonia. Eur Psychiatry. 2005 Aug. 20(5-6):422-9. [Medline].

  71. Askenazy F, Dor E, Benoit M, Dupuis G, Serret S, Myquel M, et al. Catatonie chez une adolescente de 14 ans : traitement par clorazépam et carbamazépine et évolution à dix ans [Catatonia in a 14 year-old girl: Treatment with clonazepam and carbamazepine, a 10-year follow-up]. L’Encéphale. 2009.

  72. Chang CH, Hsiao YL, Hsu CY, Chen ST. Treatment of catatonia with olanzapine: a case report. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Nov 13. 33(8):1559-60. [Medline].

  73. Huang YC, Lin CC, Hung YY, Huang TL. Rapid relief of catatonia in mood disorder by lorazepam and diazepam. Biomed J. 2013 Jan-Feb. 36(1):35-9. [Medline].

  74. Lin CC, Huang TL. Lorazepam-diazepam protocol for catatonia in schizophrenia: A 21-case analysis. Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 12. [Medline].

  75. Gupta A, Dhir A, Kumar A, Kulkarni SK. Protective effect of cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors against drug-induced catatonia and MPTP-induced striatal lesions in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Dec. 94(2):219-26. [Medline].

  76. Krivoy A, Weizman A, Kimchi-Nesher S, Zemishlany Z, Fischel T. Recurrnet [sic] catatonia: Fluctuating between psychotic and catatonic dimensions [abstract]. European Psychiatry. 2008. 23:S328-S329.

  77. Huang TL, Hung YY. Lorazepam reduces the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in schizophrenia patients with catatonia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Feb 1. 33(1):158-9. [Medline].

  78. Grover S, Aggarwal M. Long-term maintenance lorazepam for catatonia: a case report. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb. 33(1):82.e1-3. [Medline].

  79. Chanpattana W, Kramer BA, Kunigiri G, Gangadhar BN, Kitphati R, Andrade C. A Survey of the Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Asia. J ECT. 2009 May 13. [Medline].

  80. Chanpattana W. A survey of the practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Asia. European Psychiatry. 2009. 24 Supplement 1:S770.

  81. Wachtel LE, Kahng S, Dhossche DM, Cascella N, Reti IM. ECT for catatonia in an autistic girl. Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Mar. 165(3):329-33. [Medline].

  82. Moss L, Vaidya N. Does Comorbid Alcohol and Substance Abuse Affect Electroconvulsive Therapy Outcome in the Treatment of Mood Disorders?. J ECT. 2013 Jul 15. [Medline].

  83. Consoli A, Boulicot V, Cornic F, Fossati P, Barbeau M, Cohen D. Moderate clinical improvement with maintenance ECT in a 17-year-old boy with intractable catatonic schizophrenia. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Apr. 18(4):250-4. [Medline].

  84. Slooter AJ, Braun KP, Balk FJ, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy for malignant catatonia in childhood. Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Mar. 32(3):190-2. [Medline].

  85. Rhoads JC, Votolato NA, Young JL, Gilchrist RH. The successful use of right unilateral ultra-brief pulse electroconvulsive therapy in an adolescent with catatonia. Brain Stimulation. 2009.

  86. Nomoto H, Hatta K, Usui C, Ito M, Kita Y, Arai H. Vitamin K deficiency due to prolongation of antibiotic treatment and decrease in food intake in a catatonia patient. Psychosomatics. 2011 Sep-Oct. 52(5):486-7. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Table. Causes of Catatonia by Category
Category Causes
Neurologic conditionsNeuroleptic malignant syndrome[15]



Administration of agents that block postsynaptic dopamine receptors*



Administration of sibutramine[16] (withdrawn from US market October 8, 2010)



Withdrawal of lorazepam and other sedatives



Akinetic-rigid syndrome



Arachnoid cyst in right parietal region



Astrocytoma



Atrophy of left amygdala[17]



Autistic disorder[6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]



Basilar artery thrombosis



Bilateral hemorrhagic lesions of temporal lobes



Cerebellar catalepsy



Cerebral hemorrhage



Cerebral infarct



Cerebrovascular disease



Cortical venous thrombosis



Central pontine myelinolysis



Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration



Dystonia



Encephalitis (herpesvirus, Trypanosoma cruzi)



Encephalopathy (Borrelia burgdorferi, HIV infection, Wernicke encephalopathy)



Familial fatal insomnia[24]



Fibromuscular dysplasia with dissection of basilar artery



Frontal lobotomy



Head injury



Huntington disease



Hydrocephalus



Hypopituitarism secondary to postpartum hemorrhage



Idiopathic recurring stupor



Inherited neurometabolic disorders



Locked-in syndrome



Meningitis, tuberculous



Meningoencephalitis



Multiple sclerosis[25, 26]



Neurosyphilis



Nonconvulsive status epilepticus



Pervasive developmental disorders[7, 8, 22]



Pallidoluysian atrophy



Paraneoplastic encephalitis[27]



Parkinsonism



Postencephalitic parkinsonism



Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy



Progressive supranuclear palsy



Schizencephaly



Seizures (complex with partial symptomatology)



Stiff-man syndrome



Stroke



Stupor



Subarachnoid hemorrhage



Subdural hematoma



Substance intoxication (alcohol, disulfiram, organic fluorides, phencyclidine)



Subthalamic mesencephalic tumor



Surgical removal of cerebellar tumor



Tay-Sachs disease



Temporal lobe epilepsy



Tuberous sclerosis



Tumors (corpus callosum, glioma of third ventricle, supraventricular diffuse pinealoma)



Vegetative state



Von Economo (lethargic) encephalitis



Wilson disease



Psychiatric conditionsAcute stress disorder



Anorexia nervosa



Autistic disorder[6]



Brief reactive psychosis with catatonia



Conversion disorder



Hysteria



Major depression, single episode with catatonic features



Mood disorders



Neuroleptic malignant syndrome[15]



Posttraumatic stress disorder



Schizophrenia



Substance intoxication (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [“ecstasy”], alcohol, amphetamine, phencyclidine, substance withdrawal, hypnotic-sedative, lorazepam)



Psychological factorsImmigration



Experiencing rejection of an expression of love



Feelings of alienation in an unfamiliar country



Medical conditionsAIDS



Acute intermittent porphyria



Addison disease



Bacterial septicemia



Bronchorrhea



Carcinoid tumors



Diabetic ketoacidosis



Encephalopathy (hepatic, HIV infection, Wernicke encephalopathy)



Fever of unknown cause



Heat stroke



Hepatic failure



Hereditary coproporphyria



Homocystinuria



Hypercalcemia



Hyperparathyroidism



Hyperthyroidism



Hyponatremia



Hypothermia



Intestinal atony



Malaria



Neuroleptic malignant syndrome[15]



Poisoning (carbon monoxide, tetraethyl lead)



Renal failure



Substance intoxication (alcohol, cyclosporine, disulfiram, organic fluorides, phencyclidine)



Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)



Syphilis



Systemic lupus erythematosus



Thermal injury



Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura



Tuberculosis



Typhoid fever



Uremia



Von Economo (lethargic) encephalitis



Obstetric conditionsHypopituitarism secondary to postpartum hemorrhage
*Administration of agents that block postsynaptic dopamine receptors is associated with the onset of catatonia in some individuals.
Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.