Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Intracranial Hemorrhage Medication

  • Author: David S Liebeskind, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
Updated: May 10, 2016

Medication Summary

Antihypertensive agents reduce blood pressure to prevent exacerbation of intracerebral hemorrhage. Osmotic diuretics, such as mannitol, may be used to decrease intracranial pressure.

As hyperthermia may exacerbate neurological injury, acetaminophen may be given to reduce fever and to relieve headache.

Anticonvulsants are used routinely to avoid seizures that may be induced by cortical damage. Levetiracetam has shown efficacy in children for prophylaxis of early posthemorrhagic seizures.[13] Additional data suggest that levetiracetam is more effective than phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis without suppression of cognitive abilities in patients with ICH.[14] Vitamin K and protamine may be used to restore normal coagulation parameters. Antacids are used to prevent gastric ulcers associated with intracerebral hemorrhage.

Accumulating data suggest that statins have neuroprotective effects; however, their association with intracerebral hemorrhage outcome has been inconsistent.[16] Antecedent use of statins prior to intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with favorable outcome and reduced mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage. This phenomenon appears to be a class effect of statins.


Antihypertensive agents

Class Summary

These agents reduce blood pressure to prevent exacerbation of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate)


Antagonizes adrenergic receptors, thereby reducing blood pressure.

Nicardipine (Cardene, Cardene SR)


Calcium channel blocker. Potent rapid onset of action, ease of titration, and lack of toxic metabolites. Effective but limited reported experience in hypertensive encephalopathy.


Osmotic diuretics

Class Summary

Osmotic diuretics reverse pressure gradient across the blood-brain barrier, reducing intracranial pressure.

Mannitol (Osmitrol, Resectisol)


Reduces cerebral edema with help of osmotic forces and decreases blood viscosity, resulting in reflex vasoconstriction and lowering of intracranial pressure.


Antipyretics, analgesics

Class Summary

These agents reduce fever and relieve pain.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Feverall, Aspirin Free Anacin)


Reduces fever, maintains normothermia, and reduces headache.



Class Summary

These agents reduce the frequency of seizures and provide seizure prophylaxis.

Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx)


Diphosphate ester salt of phenytoin that acts as water-soluble prodrug of phenytoin. Following administration, plasma esterases convert fosphenytoin to phosphate, formaldehyde, and phenytoin. Phenytoin in turn stabilizes neuronal membranes and decreases seizure activity.

To avoid need to perform molecular weight-based adjustments when converting between fosphenytoin and phenytoin sodium doses, express dose as phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE). Although can be administered IV and IM, IV route is route of choice and should be used in emergency situations.

Concomitant administration of IV benzodiazepine usually necessary to control status epilepticus. Full antiepileptic effect of phenytoin, whether given as fosphenytoin or parenteral phenytoin, not immediate.



Class Summary

This agent reverses some coagulopathies or bleeding diatheses.

Phytonadione; vitamin K (Konakion, Mephyton, AquaMEPHYTON)


Promotes hepatic synthesis of clotting factors that inhibit warfarin effects.



Forms a salt with heparin and neutralizes its effects.



Class Summary

These agents provide prophylaxis of gastric ulcers.

Famotidine (Pepcid)


Minimizes development of gastric ulcers.

Competitively inhibits histamine at H2 receptor of gastric parietal cells, resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen concentration.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

David S Liebeskind, MD Professor of Neurology, Program Director, Vascular Neurology Residency Program, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Neurology Director, Stroke Imaging Program, Co-Medical Director, Cerebral Blood Flow Laboratory, Associate Neurology Director, UCLA Stroke Center

David S Liebeskind, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, Stroke Council of the American Heart Association, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, American Society of Neuroimaging, American Society of Neuroradiology, National Stroke Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Howard S Kirshner, MD Professor of Neurology, Psychiatry and Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vice Chairman, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; Director, Vanderbilt Stroke Center; Program Director, Stroke Service, Vanderbilt Stallworth Rehabilitation Hospital; Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Nashville Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Howard S Kirshner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Neurological Association, American Society of Neurorehabilitation, American Academy of Neurology, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, National Stroke Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Tennessee Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Helmi L Lutsep, MD Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine; Associate Director, OHSU Stroke Center

Helmi L Lutsep, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Stroke Association

Disclosure: Medscape Neurology Editorial Advisory Board for: Stroke Adjudication Committee, CREST2.

Additional Contributors

Jeffrey L Saver, MD, FAHA, FAAN Professor of Neurology, Director, UCLA Stroke Center, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Jeffrey L Saver, MD, FAHA, FAAN is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Heart Association, American Neurological Association, National Stroke Association

Disclosure: Received the university of california regents receive funds for consulting services on clinical trial design provided to covidien, stryker, and lundbeck. from University of California for consulting.

  1. Nishijima DK, Offerman SR, Ballard DW, Vinson DR, Chettipally UK, Rauchwerger AS, et al. Immediate and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with head trauma and preinjury warfarin or clopidogrel use. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Jun. 59(6):460-8.e1-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  2. Hallevi H, Dar NS, Barreto AD, Morales MM, Martin-Schild S, Abraham AT, et al. The IVH score: a novel tool for estimating intraventricular hemorrhage volume: clinical and research implications. Crit Care Med. 2009 Mar. 37(3):969-74, e1. [Medline].

  3. Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Brass LM, et al. Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 21. 343(25):1826-32. [Medline].

  4. Vespa PM, O'Phelan K, Shah M, Mirabelli J, Starkman S, Kidwell C, et al. Acute seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage: a factor in progressive midline shift and outcome. Neurology. 2003 May 13. 60(9):1441-6. [Medline].

  5. Woo D, Haverbusch M, Sekar P. Effect of untreated hypertension on hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke. 2004 Jul. 35(7):1703-8. [Medline].

  6. Nishijima DK, Offerman SR, Ballard DW, Vinson DR, Chettipally UK, Rauchwerger AS, et al. Risk of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with head injury and preinjury warfarin or clopidogrel use. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Feb. 20(2):140-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Wada R, Aviv RI, Fox AJ, Sahlas DJ, Gladstone DJ, Tomlinson G, et al. CT angiography "spot sign" predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 2007 Apr. 38(4):1257-62. [Medline].

  8. Bang OY, Buck BH, Saver JL, Alger JR, Yoon SR, Starkman S, et al. Prediction of hemorrhagic transformation after recanalization therapy using T2*-permeability magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol. 2007 Aug. 62(2):170-6. [Medline].

  9. Nishihara T, Nagata K, Tanaka S. Newly developed endoscopic instruments for the removal of intracerebral hematoma. Neurocrit Care. 2005. 2(1):67-74. [Medline].

  10. Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K. Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 24. 352(8):777-85. [Medline].

  11. Zaaroor M, Soustiel JF, Brenner B, Bar-Lavie Y, Martinowitz U, Levi L. Administration off label of recombinant factor-VIIa (rFVIIa) to patients with blunt or penetrating brain injury without coagulopathy. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008 Jul. 150(7):663-8. [Medline].

  12. Honner SK, Singh A, Cheung PT, Alter HJ, Dutaret CG, Patel AK, et al. Emergency department control of blood pressure in intracerebral hemorrhage. J Emerg Med. 2011 Oct. 41(4):355-61. [Medline].

  13. Bansal S, Blalock D, Kebede T, Dean NP, Carpenter JL. Levetiracetam versus (fos)phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in pediatric patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Feb. 13(2):209-15. [Medline].

  14. Taylor S, Heinrichs RJ, Janzen JM, Ehtisham A. Levetiracetam is associated with improved cognitive outcome for patients with intracranial hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2011 Aug. 15(1):80-4. [Medline].

  15. Qureshi AI, Palesch YY, Martin R, Novitzke J, Cruz-Flores S, Ehtisham A. Effect of systolic blood pressure reduction on hematoma expansion, perihematomal edema, and 3-month outcome among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage: results from the antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage study. Arch Neurol. 2010 May. 67(5):570-6. [Medline].

  16. Biffi A, Devan WJ, Anderson CD, et al. Statin use and outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage: Case-control study and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2011 May 3. 76(18):1581-8. [Medline].

  17. Finelli PF, Kessimian N, Bernstein PW. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy manifesting as recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. Arch Neurol. 1984 Mar. 41(3):330-3. [Medline].

  18. Ritter MA, Droste DW, Hegedus K. Role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in intracerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive patients. Neurology. 2005 Apr 12. 64(7):1233-7. [Medline].

  19. Castellanos M, Leira R, Tejada J. Predictors of good outcome in medium to large spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhages. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 May. 76(5):691-5. [Medline].

  20. Alberts MJ, Latchaw RE, Selman WR. Recommendations for comprehensive stroke centers: a consensus statement from the Brain Attack Coalition. Stroke. 2005 Jul. 36(7):1597-616. [Medline].

  21. Auer LM, Deinsberger W, Niederkorn K, et al. Endoscopic surgery versus medical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hematoma: a randomized study. J Neurosurg. 1989 Apr. 70(4):530-5. [Medline].

  22. Bang OY, Saver JL, Alger JR, Shah SH, Buck BH, Starkman S, et al. Patterns and Predictors of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Derangements in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2008 Nov 26. [Medline].

  23. Bang OY, Saver JL, Liebeskind DS, Starkman S, Villablanca P, Salamon N, et al. Cholesterol level and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke thrombolysis. Neurology. 2007 Mar 6. 68(10):737-42. [Medline].

  24. Bradley WG Jr. MR appearance of hemorrhage in the brain. Radiology. 1993 Oct. 189(1):15-26. [Medline].

  25. Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, Hanley D, Kase C, Krieger D, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke. 2007 Jun. 38(6):2001-23. [Medline].

  26. Broderick JP, Brott T, Tomsick T, et al. Intracerebral hemorrhage more than twice as common as subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1993 Feb. 78(2):188-91. [Medline].

  27. Broderick JP, Brott TG, Tomsick T, et al. Ultra-early evaluation of intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1990 Feb. 72(2):195-9. [Medline].

  28. Chalela JA, Kidwell CS, Nentwich LM, Luby M, Butman JA, Demchuk AM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison. Lancet. 2007 Jan 27. 369(9558):293-8. [Medline].

  29. Chiquete E, Ruiz-Sandoval MC, Alvarez-Palazuelos LE, Padilla-Martínez JJ, González-Cornejo S, Ruiz-Sandoval JL. Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in the very elderly. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007. 24(2-3):196-201. [Medline].

  30. Connor MD, Modi G, Warlow CP. Accuracy of the Siriraj and Guy's Hospital Stroke Scores in urban South Africans. Stroke. 2007 Jan. 38(1):62-8. [Medline].

  31. Demaerschalk BM, Aguilar MI. Treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2008 Nov. 10(6):455-67. [Medline].

  32. Derex L, Nighoghossian N. Intracerebral haemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: an update. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Oct. 79(10):1093-9. [Medline].

  33. Fiehler J, Remmele C, Kucinski T. Reperfusion after severe local perfusion deficit precedes hemorrhagic transformation: an MRI study in acute stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005. 19(2):117-24. [Medline].

  34. Flemming KD, Wijdicks EF, St Louis EK, Li H. Predicting deterioration in patients with lobar haemorrhages. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 May. 66(5):600-5. [Medline].

  35. Greenberg SM. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: prospects for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Neurology. 1998 Sep. 51(3):690-4. [Medline].

  36. Hankey GJ, Hon C. Surgery for primary intracerebral hemorrhage: is it safe and effective? A systematic review of case series and randomized trials. Stroke. 1997 Nov. 28(11):2126-32. [Medline].

  37. Hart RG, Boop BS, Anderson DC. Oral anticoagulants and intracranial hemorrhage. Facts and hypotheses. Stroke. 1995 Aug. 26(8):1471-7. [Medline].

  38. Ivascu FA, Howells GA, Junn FS. Rapid warfarin reversal in anticoagulated patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage reduces hemorrhage progression and mortality. J Trauma. 2005 Nov. 59(5):1131-7; discussion 1137-9. [Medline].

  39. Juvela S, Heiskanen O, Poranen A, et al. The treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. A prospective randomized trial of surgical and conservative treatment. J Neurosurg. 1989 May. 70(5):755-8. [Medline].

  40. Kang HS, Han MH, Kwon OK, Kwon BJ, Kim SH, Oh CW. Intracranial hemorrhage after carotid angioplasty: a pooled analysis. J Endovasc Ther. 2007 Feb. 14(1):77-85. [Medline].

  41. Kassner A, Roberts T, Taylor K. Prediction of hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke using permeability MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Oct. 26(9):2213-7. [Medline].

  42. Khatri P, Broderick JP, Khoury JC, Carrozzella JA, Tomsick TA. Microcatheter contrast injections during intra-arterial thrombolysis may increase intracranial hemorrhage risk. Stroke. 2008 Dec. 39(12):3283-7. [Medline].

  43. Khatri P, Wechsler LR, Broderick JP. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with revascularization therapies. Stroke. 2007 Feb. 38(2):431-40. [Medline].

  44. Kidwell CS, Chalela JA, Saver JL. Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA. 2004 Oct 20. 292(15):1823-30. [Medline].

  45. Klatsky AL, Friedman GD, Sidney S. Risk of hemorrhagic stroke in Asian American ethnic groups. Neuroepidemiology. 2005. 25(1):26-31. [Medline].

  46. Lees KR, Zivin JA, Ashwood T. NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 9. 354(6):588-600. [Medline].

  47. Leira R, Davalos A, Silva Y. Early neurologic deterioration in intracerebral hemorrhage: predictors and associated factors. Neurology. 2004 Aug 10. 63(3):461-7. [Medline].

  48. Liu-DeRyke X, Rhoney D. Hemostatic therapy for the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage. Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Apr. 28(4):485-95. [Medline].

  49. Lo WD, Lee J, Rusin J, Perkins E, Roach ES. Intracranial hemorrhage in children: an evolving spectrum. Arch Neurol. 2008 Dec. 65(12):1629-33. [Medline].

  50. Lu A, Tang Y, Ran R. Brain genomics of intracerebral hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Feb. 26(2):230-52. [Medline].

  51. Mascitelli L, Pezzetta F, Goldstein MR. Hemorrhagic stroke in the SPARCL study. Stroke. 2008 Nov. 39(11):e180; author reply e181. [Medline].

  52. Mayer SA, Rincon F. Treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Oct. 4(10):662-72. [Medline].

  53. Mitchell P, Mitra D, Gregson BA, Mendelow AD. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 Jul. 8(7):832-8. [Medline].

  54. Narayan RK, Maas AI, Marshall LF, Servadei F, Skolnick BE, Tillinger MN. Recombinant factor VIIA in traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage: results of a dose-escalation clinical trial. Neurosurgery. 2008 Apr. 62(4):776-86; discussion 786-8. [Medline].

  55. Nghiemphu PL, Green RM, Pope WB, Lai A, Cloughesy TF. Safety of anticoagulation use and bevacizumab in patients with glioma. Neuro Oncol. 2008 Jun. 10(3):355-60. [Medline].

  56. Nishijima DK, Dager WE, Schrot RJ, Holmes JF. The efficacy of factor VIIa in emergency department patients with warfarin use and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Mar. 17(3):244-51. [Medline].

  57. Nyquist P. Management of acute intracranial and intraventricular hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar. 38(3):946-53. [Medline].

  58. Ogasawara K, Sakai N, Kuroiwa T, Hosoda K, Iihara K, Toyoda K, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome following carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting: retrospective review of 4494 patients. J Neurosurg. 2007 Dec. 107(6):1130-6. [Medline].

  59. Oppenheim C, Touze E, Hernalsteen D. Comparison of five MR sequences for the detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005. 20(5):388-94. [Medline].

  60. Orakcioglu B, Becker K, Sakowitz OW, Unterberg A, Schellinger PD. Serial diffusion and perfusion MRI analysis of the perihemorrhagic zone in a rat ICH model. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008. 103:15-8. [Medline].

  61. Prasad K, Mendelow AD, Gregson B. Surgery for primary supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8. CD000200. [Medline].

  62. Qureshi AI, Mohammad YM, Yahia AM. A prospective multicenter study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of aggressive antihypertensive treatment in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. J Intensive Care Med. 2005 Jan-Feb. 20(1):34-42. [Medline].

  63. Qureshi AI, Suri MF. Acute reversal of clopidogrel-related platelet inhibition using methyl prednisolone in a patient with intracranial hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008 Nov. 29(10):e97. [Medline].

  64. Rincon F, Mayer SA. Current treatment options for intracerebral hemorrhage. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Jun. 10(3):229-40. [Medline].

  65. Rincon F, Mayer SA. Intracerebral hemorrhage: getting ready for effective treatments. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010 Feb. 23(1):59-64. [Medline].

  66. Runchey S, McGee S. Does this patient have a hemorrhagic stroke?: clinical findings distinguishing hemorrhagic stroke from ischemic stroke. JAMA. 2010 Jun 9. 303(22):2280-6. [Medline].

  67. Sandercock P. Yes' or 'no' to routine statins after subarachnoid hemorrhage to prevent delayed cerebral ischaemia, vasospasm, and death? A cautionary tale of 2 meta-analyses. Stroke. 2010 Jan. 41(1):e1-2. [Medline].

  68. Smith EE, Rosand J, Greenberg SM. Hemorrhagic stroke. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2005 May. 15(2):259-72, ix. [Medline].

  69. Sorimachi T, Fujii Y, Morita K, Tanaka R. Predictors of hematoma enlargement in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage treated with rapid administration of antifibrinolytic agents and strict blood pressure control. J Neurosurg. 2007 Feb. 106(2):250-4. [Medline].

  70. Steiner T, Rosand J, Diringer M. Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant therapy: current practices and unresolved questions. Stroke. 2006 Jan. 37(1):256-62. [Medline].

  71. Struffert T, Doelken M, Adamek E, Schwarz M, Engelhorn T, Kloska S, et al. Flat-detector computed tomography with intravenous contrast material application in experimental aneurysms: comparison with multislice CT and conventional angiography. Acta Radiol. 2010 May. 51(4):431-7. [Medline].

  72. Tuhrim S, Dambrosia JM, Price TR, et al. Prediction of intracerebral hemorrhage survival. Ann Neurol. 1988 Aug. 24(2):258-63. [Medline].

  73. Vernooij MW, van der Lugt A, Ikram MA, Wielopolski PA, Niessen WJ, Hofman A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds: the Rotterdam Scan Study. Neurology. 2008 Apr 1. 70(14):1208-14. [Medline].

  74. Viswanathan A, Chabriat H. Cerebral microhemorrhage. Stroke. 2006 Feb. 37(2):550-5. [Medline].

  75. Zhu XL, Chan MS, Poon WS. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: which patients need diagnostic cerebral angiography? A prospective study of 206 cases and review of the literature. Stroke. 1997 Jul. 28(7):1406-9. [Medline].

Intracranial hemorrhage. CT scan of right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage complicating thrombolysis of an ischemic stroke.
Intracranial hemorrhage. Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery, T2-weighted, and gradient echo MRI illustration of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with a right frontal arteriovenous malformation.
Intracranial hemorrhage. Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery, T2-weighted, and gradient echo MRI depiction of left temporal intracranial hemorrhage due to sickle cell disease.
This MRI reveals petechial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) due to cerebral venous thrombosis.
This CT scan and MRI revealed midbrain intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) associated with a cavernous angioma.
This MRI reveals hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct.
Table 1. MRI Appearance of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Phase Time Hemoglobin T1 T2
Hyperacute < 24 hours Oxyhemoglobin (intracellular) Iso or hypo Hyper
Acute 1-3 days Deoxyhemoglobin (intracellular) Iso or hypo Hypo
Early subacute >3 days Methemoglobin Hyper Hypo
Late subacute >7 days Methemoglobin (extracellular) Hyper Hyper
Chronic >14 days Hemosiderin (extracellular) Iso or hypo Hypo
Table 2. Grading of Subependymal Hemorrhage
Grade Hemorrhage Location
I Subependymal hemorrhage
II Intraventricular hemorrhage without ventriculomegaly
III Intraventricular hemorrhage with ventriculomegaly
IV Intraventricular hemorrhage with parenchymal hemorrhage
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.