Central Nervous System Lymphoma in HIV Medication
- Author: Florian P Thomas, MD, PhD, Drmed, MA, MS; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MD, DM more...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment. Preliminary evidence supports the use of ganciclovir. No dosage recommendations can be given at this time.
These agents inhibit the synthesis of viral DNA. This therapeutic approach is mostly used in the experimental setting.
It is generally believed that EBV-associated lymphomas express only latent proteins, thus rendering antiviral treatments ineffective. Several researchers have tried ganciclovir, the combination of ganciclovir/zidovudine and interleukin 2, and hydroxyurea with variable results, suggesting that EBV-targeted therapy may be beneficial; however, the evidence at this stage is still poor.
Ganciclovir is an acyclic nucleoside analogue of 2'deoxyguanasine. It phosphorylates first to the monophosphate form by a cytomegalovirus (CMV)–encoded protein kinase homologue, then to diphosphate and triphosphate forms by cellular kinases, allowing for a 100-fold greater concentration of ganciclovir in CMV-infected cells, possibly due to preferential phosphorylation of ganciclovir in virus-infected cells. It is thought to inhibit CMV replication by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerases and by incorporating itself into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA elongation. Like acyclovir, ganciclovir is virostatic and only exerts its effect on replicating virus.
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