Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Neurological Manifestations of Arsenic Intoxication Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Frances M Dyro, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
 
Updated: Nov 02, 2015
 

History

Acute toxicity following ingestion, inhalation, or absorption of inorganic arsenic produces a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. This is followed, usually somewhat later, by severe gastrointestinal distress with copious and severe diarrhea and vomiting. Vertigo, delirium, coma, and often convulsions are seen as the toxicity is manifest. Circulatory collapse and renal and hepatic failure ensue, and hemolysis usually occurs 4-6 hours after onset of evidence of toxicity. Acute symptoms typically develop hours after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Inhalation of arsine gas produces headache, malaise, weakness, dizziness, dyspnea, and GI distress more rapidly.

The typical picture in subacute arsenic toxicity includes the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms—nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea—which may be intermittent but in retrospect are associated with ingestion of hot or cold beverages. For a layperson's account of an experience with arsenic poisoning, read "My Husband Poisoned Me" by Ellen Harris in the March 2000 issue of McCall's Magazine, pages 68-73.

Chronic exposure effects should be suspected when a patient presents with a distal sensorimotor neuropathy accompanied by skin hyperpigmentation. History of drinking well water is an additional clue. Bae et al have written on the role of a rice cooking technique associated with arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh.[3]

Next

Physical

Heavy metal poisonings have many similarities, making clinical distinctions between them difficult at times. Arsenic is more likely than other heavy metals to produce a dramatic gastroenteric picture when ingested. Inhalation of arsine gas produces clinical features whose onset is dependent on the degree of exposure. The initial complaints may be vague, with headache, malaise, weakness, dizziness, and dyspnea. Later, the features are the same as those seen in inorganic arsenic ingestion. The cutaneous manifestations are rather different depending on the heavy metal exposure.

  • Cutaneous: Hyperpigmentation of the skin of the face or extremities is in a "raindrop" distribution. The skin has a peculiar bronze tint. A patient described by Kyle and Pease had pigmentation of the buccal mucosa resembling the hyperpigmentation of Addison disease. [17] Oral herpetiform lesions or a diffuse macular rash may be present, as may brawny, nonpruritic desquamation and patchy alopecia as well as hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. Mees lines are transverse, 1-2 mm white striations in the fingernails, which may be deformed or fall out within 2-3 weeks of exposure. The Mees lines are actual arsenic deposits. Because of the availability of sulfhydryl groups in keratin, arsenic can be measured in hair and fingernail samples. Arsenic can be detected in hair samples as early as 30 hours after ingestion and as late as 9 years after ingestion. Thallium toxicity can be suspected in case of hair loss and fingernail loss, but thallium is more likely to produce hyperglycemia.
  • Neurological: Paresthesias and numbness, usually in a symmetric stocking-glove distribution, and muscle weakness are a result of peripheral neuropathy. The onset and progression may be mistaken for Guillain-Barré syndrome. [11] This problem may persist long after arsenic exposure stops. Fatigue and weakness are major complaints. The neuropathy is not seen acutely but develops over the weeks subsequent to exposure in acute or subacute toxicity. In regular, long-term arsenic exposure, the presenting complaint is frequently a sensory neuropathy with features that resemble an alcoholic neuropathy. [18] Burning paresthesias in glove and stocking distribution, early loss of stretch reflexes, and later weakness are seen. In severe toxicity, flaccid paralysis may appear in the lower extremities, then the upper extremities. This is maximal about 4 weeks after acute exposure. Again, the clinical picture resembles Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • Hematologic: Anemia with leukopenia is seen frequently; splenomegaly may be apparent. Granulocytopenia and an increase in the eosinophil count often occur.
  • Systemic complaints of regional subcutaneous edema are present in arsenic intoxication. The eyelids in particular, and legs less frequently, become quite edematous.
Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Frances M Dyro, MD Associate Professor of Neurology, New York Medical College; Physician, Neuromuscular Section, Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center

Frances M Dyro, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Glenn Lopate, MD Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Division of Neuromuscular Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Department of Neurology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital

Glenn Lopate, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS Professor Emeritus of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, State University of New York Upstate Medical University; Neuroscience Director, Department of Neurology, Crouse Irving Memorial Hospital

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of International Physicians, American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pain Medicine, American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, National Association of Managed Care Physicians, American College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Jonathan S Rutchik, MD, MPH Associate Clinical Professor, Division of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine; Neurology, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Associates (www.neoma.com)

Jonathan S Rutchik, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society, Society of Toxicology, Western Occupational and Environmental Medical Association, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Ford M. Arsenic. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, et al, eds. Toxicologic Emergencies. 1994:1011-1029.

  2. Axelson O, Dahlgren E, Jansson CD, Rehnlund SO. Arsenic exposure and mortality: a case-referent study from a Swedish copper smelter. Br J Ind Med. 1978 Feb. 35(1):8-15. [Medline].

  3. Bae M, Watanabe C, Inaoka T, et al. Arsenic in cooked rice in Bangladesh. Lancet. 2002 Dec 7. 360(9348):1839-40. [Medline].

  4. Franzblau A, Lilis R. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure. Arch Environ Health. 1989 Nov-Dec. 44(6):385-90. [Medline].

  5. Heinrich-Ramm R, Mindt-Prufert S, Szadkowski D. Arsenic species excretion in a group of persons in northern Germany-- contribution to the evaluation of reference values. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2001 Jul. 203(5-6):475-7. [Medline].

  6. Ball P. Arsenic-free water still a pipedream. Nature. 2005 Jul 21. 436(7049):313. [Medline].

  7. Fowler BA, Weissberg JB. Arsine poisoning. N Engl J Med. 1974 Nov 28. 291(22):1171-4. [Medline].

  8. Heyman A, Pfeiffer JB, Willett RW, Taylor HM. Peripheral neuropathy caused by arsenical intoxication; a study of 41 cases with observations on the effects of BAL (2, 3, dimercapto-propanol). N Engl J Med. 1956 Mar 1. 254(9):401-9. [Medline].

  9. Chen CJ, Wu MM, Lee SS, et al. Atherogenicity and carcinogenicity of high-arsenic artesian well water. Multiple risk factors and related malignant neoplasms of blackfoot disease. Arteriosclerosis. 1988 Sep-Oct. 8(5):452-60. [Medline].

  10. Watanabe C, Kawata A, Sudo N, et al. Water intake in an Asian population living in arsenic-contaminated area. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1. 198(3):272-82. [Medline].

  11. Donofrio PD, Wilbourn AJ, Albers JW, et al. Acute arsenic intoxication presenting as Guillain-Barre-like syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1987 Feb. 10(2):114-20. [Medline].

  12. Bates MN, Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C. Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Mar 1. 135(5):462-76. [Medline].

  13. Enterline PE, Henderson VL, Marsh GM. Exposure to arsenic and respiratory cancer. A reanalysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Jun. 125(6):929-38. [Medline].

  14. Karagas MR, Le CX, Morris S, et al. Markers of low level arsenic exposure for evaluating human cancer risks in a US population. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2001. 14(2):171-5. [Medline].

  15. Argos M, Kalra T, Rathouz PJ, Chen Y, Pierce B, Parvez F, et al. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, and all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in Bangladesh (HEALS): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2010 Jul 24. 376(9737):252-8. [Medline].

  16. Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16. 368(9553):2167-78. [Medline].

  17. Kyle RA, Pease GL. Hematologic aspects of arsenic intoxication. N Engl J Med. 1965 Jul 1. 273:18-23. [Medline].

  18. Massey EW. Arsenic neuropathy. Neurology. 1981 Aug. 31(8):1057-8. [Medline].

  19. Moyer TP. Testing for arsenic. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993 Dec. 68(12):1210-1. [Medline].

  20. Lee AM, Fraumeni JF Jr. Arsenic and respiratory cancer in man: an occupational study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1969 Jun. 42(6):1045-52. [Medline].

  21. Neubauer O. Arsenical cancer. Br J Cancer. 1947. 1:192-251:

  22. Barbara Fraser. Cancer cluster in Chile linked to arsenic contamination. The Lancet. February 18, 2012. 379:603.

 
Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.