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Pediatric Craniosynostosis Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Raj D Sheth, MD; Chief Editor: Amy Kao, MD  more...
 
Updated: Sep 17, 2015
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Other problems to be considered include the following:

  • Apert syndrome
  • Carpenter syndrome
  • Chotzen syndrome
  • Crouzon syndrome
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Kleeblattschädel (cloverleaf skull)
  • Pfeiffer syndrome
  • Positional molding
  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Rickets
  • Vitamin D deficiency

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Raj D Sheth, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Nemours Children's Clinic; Professor of Neurology, Mayo College of Medicine; Professor of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine

Raj D Sheth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Epilepsy Society, American Neurological Association, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Bermans J Iskandar, MD Professor, Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Departments of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics

Bermans J Iskandar, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Saswata Roy, MD Pediatric Otolaryngologist, Director, Facial Anomalies and Cranial Base Program, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Nemours Children's Clinic

Saswata Roy, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Nathan J Ranalli, MD Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery and Pediatrics, Associate Program Director of Pediatric Maxillofacial and Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship, University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville; Consulting Surgeon, Division of Pediatric Neurological Surgery, Lucy Gooding Pediatric Neurosurgery Center, Wolfson Children’s Hospital

Nathan J Ranalli, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American Medical Student Association/Foundation, Congress of Neurological Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Philipp Aldana, MD, FAAP Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery and Pediatrics and Chief, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Departments of Neurosurgery and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine at Jacksonville

Philipp Aldana, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, International Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery, American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Kenneth J Mack, MD, PhD Senior Associate Consultant, Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mayo Clinic

Kenneth J Mack, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, Child Neurology Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Society for Neuroscience

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Amy Kao, MD Attending Neurologist, Children's National Medical Center

Amy Kao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Epilepsy Society, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Have stock from Cellectar Biosciences; have stock from Varian medical systems; have stock from Express Scripts.

Additional Contributors

James J Riviello, Jr, MD George Peterkin Endowed Chair in Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Professor of Neurology, Peter Kellaway Section of Neurophysiology, Baylor College of Medicine; Chief of Neurophysiology, Director of the Epilepsy and Neurophysiology Program, Texas Children's Hospital

James J Riviello, Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Partner received royalty from Up To Date for section editor.

Acknowledgements

Ian M Heger, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine; Assistant Director of Clinical Services, Pediatric Neurosurgery Center, Wolfson Children's Hospital

Ian M Heger, MD, is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, American Epilepsy Society, American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons, Children's Oncology Group, and Congress of Neurological Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  9. Scott JR, Isom CN, Gruss JS, et al. Symptom outcomes following cranial vault expansion for craniosynostosis in children older than 2 years. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Jan. 123(1):289-97; discussion 298-9. [Medline].

  10. Shah MN, Kane AA, Peterson JD, Woo AS, Naidoo SD, Smyth MD. Endoscopically assisted versus open repair of sagittal craniosynostosis: the St. Louis Children’s Hospital experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011/08. 8(2):165-70.

  11. Jimenez DF, Barone CM. Multiple-suture nonsyndromic craniosynostosis: early and effective management using endoscopic techniques. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Mar. 5(3):223-31. [Medline].

  12. Keshavarzi S, Hayden MG, Ben-Haim S, Meltzer HS, Cohen SR, Levy ML. Variations of endoscopic and open repair of metopic craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Sep. 20(5):1439-44. [Medline].

  13. Oppenheimer AJ, Ranganathan K, Levi B, Strahle JM, Kapurch J, Muraszko KM, et al. Minimizing Transfusions in Primary Cranial Vault Remodeling: The Role of Aminocaproic Acid. J Craniofac Surg. 2013 Nov 14. [Medline].

  14. Ettinger N, Williams M, Phillips JA 3rd. Variable expressivity and clinical heterogeneity can complicate the diagnosis and management of Pfeiffer syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2013 Sep. 24(5):1829-32. [Medline].

  15. Jeong JH, Song JY, Kwon GY, Baek SH, Kim JC, Choi TH, et al. The results and complications of cranial bone reconstruction in patients with craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2013 Jul. 24(4):1162-7. [Medline].

  16. Knight SJ, Anderson VA, Spencer-Smith MM, Da Costa AC. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children with single-suture craniosynostosis: a systematic review. Dev Neuropsychol. 2014. 39(3):159-86. [Medline].

  17. Maliepaard M, Mathijssen IM, Oosterlaan J, Okkerse JM. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun. 133(6):e1608-15. [Medline].

  18. Cunningham ML, Heike CL. Evaluation of the infant with an abnormal skull shape. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007 Dec. 19(6):645-51. [Medline].

  19. Dadure C, Sauter M, Bringuier S, Bigorre M, Raux O, Rochette A. Intraoperative tranexamic acid reduces blood transfusion in children undergoing craniosynostosis surgery: a randomized double-blind study. Anesthesiology. 2011 Apr. 114(4):856-61. [Medline].

  20. Keshavarzi S, Hayden MG, Ben-Haim S, Meltzer HS, Cohen SR, Levy ML. Variations of endoscopic and open repair of metopic craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Sep. 20(5):1439-44. [Medline].

  21. Miraoui H, Ringe J, Haupl T, Marie PJ. Increased EFG- and PDGFalpha-receptor signaling by mutant FGF-receptor 2 contributes to osteoblast dysfunction in Apert craniosynostosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 May 1. 19(9):1678-89. [Medline].

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Diagram of a neonate's skull demonstrating the location of the sutures.
Frontal view showing a fused and ridged metopic suture on 3-dimensional CT.
CT image demonstrating features of secondary craniosynostosis with cerebral atrophy. Cerebral atrophy is not present in primary craniosynostosis.
Positional molding. Note the anterior displacement of the right occiput and of the right frontal region on the same side, which differentiate positional molding from posterior plagiocephaly craniosynostosis.
Posterior view of 3-dimensional cranial CT demonstrating early fusion of the lambdoid suture.
Isolated fusion of the metopic suture. Note that the remaining sutures are open.
Trigonocephaly. Note the triangular shape of the head.
Infant with primary craniosynostosis. The specific deformity of the skull is Kleeblattschadel or cloverleaf skull.
Skull deformities associated with single suture synostosis.
Positional plagiocephaly. Note anterior position of the ear on the side with occipital flattening.
Sagittal synostosis and the associated scaphocephaly seen on skull radiograph and 3-dimensional craniofacial CT scan.
Sagittal synostosis before and after cranial vault surgery and the associate improvement of scaphocephaly.
Unilateral coronal deformity with retrusion of the orbit and harlequin eye deformity. Note the ipsilateral deviation of the nasal radix and the contralateral deviation of the nasal tip.
Fusion of coronal sutures bilaterally. Note the increase transverse dimension and retrusion of the orbital rim.
Intraoperative view of bilateral coronal synostosis. Note the decreased anterior-posterior dimension, increased transverse width and retruded orbital rim.
Pre- and postoperative photos of metopic synostosis. Note the prominent forehead keel corrected after surgical repair.
 
 
 
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