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Myoclonic Epilepsy Beginning in Infancy or Early Childhood Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Michael C Kruer, MD; Chief Editor: Amy Kao, MD  more...
 
Updated: Mar 14, 2016
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Disorders that may be confused with myoclonic epilepsy include the following[9] :

  • Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus
  • Benign infantile myoclonus
  • Startle reflex
  • Tics
  • Stereotypies
  • Blepharospasm
  • Astatic seizures

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Michael C Kruer, MD Assistant Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Neurosciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; Physician in Pediatric Neurology and Neurogenetics, Sanford Children's Specialty Clinic, Sanford Children's Hospital

Michael C Kruer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society of Human Genetics, Child Neurology Society, Society for Neuroscience

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Raj D Sheth, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Nemours Children's Clinic; Professor of Neurology, Mayo College of Medicine; Professor of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine

Raj D Sheth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Epilepsy Society, American Neurological Association, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Amy Kao, MD Attending Neurologist, Children's National Medical Center

Amy Kao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Epilepsy Society, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Have stock from Cellectar Biosciences; have stock from Varian medical systems; have stock from Express Scripts.

Acknowledgements

James J Riviello Jr, MD George Peterkin Endowed Chair in Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Professor of Neurology, Peter Kellaway Section of Neurophysiology, Baylor College of Medicine; Chief of Neurophysiology, Director of the Epilepsy and Neurophysiology Program, Texas Children's Hospital

James J Riviello Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Up To Date Royalty Section Editor

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Reference Salary Employment

References
  1. Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, et al. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005-2009. Epilepsia. 2010 Apr. 51(4):676-85. [Medline].

  2. Djukic A, Lado FA, Shinnar S, Moshé SL. Are early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) and the Ohtahara syndrome (EIEE) independent of each other?. Epilepsy Res. 2006 Aug. 70 Suppl 1:S68-76. [Medline].

  3. Kelley SA, Kossoff EH. Doose syndrome (myoclonic-astatic epilepsy): 40 years of progress. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Nov. 52(11):988-93. [Medline].

  4. Dravet C. The core Dravet syndrome phenotype. Epilepsia. 2011 Apr. 52 Suppl 2:3-9. [Medline].

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  7. Shahwan A, Farrell M, Delanty N. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies: a review of genetic and therapeutic aspects. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Apr. 4(4):239-48. [Medline].

  8. Cohen BH, Chinnery PF, Copeland WC. POLG-Related Disorders. Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2010 Mar 16.

  9. Crompton DE, Berkovic SF. The borderland of epilepsy: clinical and molecular features of phenomena that mimic epileptic seizures. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Apr. 8(4):370-81. [Medline].

  10. Korff CM, Nordli DR Jr. Epilepsy syndromes in infancy. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Apr. 34(4):253-63. [Medline].

  11. Wallace SJ. Myoclonus and epilepsy in childhood: a review of treatment with valproate, ethosuximide, lamotrigine and zonisamide. Epilepsy Res. 1998 Jan. 29(2):147-54. [Medline].

  12. Andrade DM, Hamani C, Minassian BA. Treatment options for epileptic myoclonus and epilepsy syndromes associated with myoclonus. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Jul. 10(10):1549-60. [Medline].

  13. Wilmshurst JM, Gaillard WD, Vinayan KP, Tsuchida TN, Plouin P, Van Bogaert P, et al. Summary of recommendations for the management of infantile seizures: Task Force Report for the ILAE Commission of Pediatrics. Epilepsia. 2015 Aug. 56 (8):1185-97. [Medline].

  14. Hirschler, B. Cannabis drug succeeds in epilepsy, doubling value of GW Pharma. Reuters. March 14, 2016. Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-gw-pharma-cannabis-idUSKCN0WG16Z.

  15. Wallace A, Wirrell E, Kenney-Jung DL. Pharmacotherapy for Dravet Syndrome. Paediatr Drugs. 2016 Mar 10. [Medline].

  16. Wheless JW, Sankar R. Treatment strategies for myoclonic seizures and epilepsy syndromes with myoclonic seizures. Epilepsia. 2003. 44 Suppl 11:27-37. [Medline].

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