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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Medication

  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 06, 2016
 

Medication Summary

Insulin injected subcutaneously is the first-line treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The different types of insulin vary with respect to onset and duration of action. Short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulins are available. Short-acting and rapid-acting insulins are the only types that can be administered intravenously (IV). Human insulin currently is the only species of insulin available in the United States; it is less antigenic than the previously used animal-derived varieties.

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Antidiabetics, Insulins

Class Summary

Rapid-acting insulins are used whenever a rapid onset and short duration are appropriate (eg, before meals or when the blood glucose level exceeds target and a correction dose is needed). Rapid-acting insulins are associated with less hypoglycemia than regular insulin.

Currently, short-acting insulins are less commonly used than the rapid-acting insulins in patients with type 1 DM. They are used when a slightly slower onset of action or a greater duration of action is desired.

Intermediate-acting insulins have a relatively slow onset of action and a relatively long duration of action. They are usually combined with faster-acting insulins to maximize the benefits of a single injection.

Long-acting and ultralong-acting insulins have a very long duration of action and, when combined with faster-acting insulins, provide better glucose control for some patients. In patients with type 1 DM, they must be used in conjunction with a rapid-acting or short-acting insulin given before meals.

Premixed insulins contain a fixed ratio of rapid-acting insulins with longer-acting insulin, which can restrict their use. Premixed insulin is usually not recommended in type 1 DM patients, because of their need for frequent adjustments of premeal insulin doses.

Insulin aspart (NovoLog)

 

Insulin aspart has a rapid onset of action, 5-15 minutes. The peak effect occurs within 30-90 minutes, and the usual duration of action is 2-4 hours. Insulin aspart is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in insulin pumps.

Insulin glulisine (Apidra)

 

Insulin glulisine has a rapid onset of action, 5-15 minutes. The peak effect occurs within 30-90 minutes, and the usual duration of action is 2-4 hours. Insulin glulisine is FDA-approved for use in insulin pumps.

Insulin lispro (Humalog)

 

Insulin lispro has a rapid onset of action, 5-15 minutes. The peak effect occurs within 30-90 minutes, and the usual duration of action is 2-4 hours.

Insulin inhaled (Afrezza)

 

Orally inhaled rapid-acting insulin in powder form. When 8 units were administered, maximum serum insulin concentration was reached by 12-15 minutes and declined to baseline by about 180 minutes.

Regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R)

 

Regular insulin has a short onset of action, 0.5 hour. Its peak effect occurs within 2-4 hours, and its usual duration of action is 5-8 hours. Preparations that contain a mixture of 70% neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and 30% regular human insulin (eg, Novolin 70/30 and Humulin 70/30) are available, but the fixed ratios of intermediate-acting to rapid-acting insulin may restrict their use.

Insulin detemir (Levemir)

 

Insulin detemir is indicated for once-daily or twice-daily subcutaneous administration in individuals with type 1 DM who require long-acting basal insulin for hyperglycemia control. Its duration of action ranges from 5.7 hours (low dose) to 23.2 hours (high dose). The prolonged action results from slow systemic absorption of detemir molecules from the injection site. Its primary activity is regulation of glucose metabolism.

Insulin detemir binds to insulin receptors and lowers blood glucose levels by facilitating cellular uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle and fat; it also inhibits glucose output from the liver. The drug inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes, inhibits proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.

Insulin glargine (Lantus)

 

Insulin glargine stimulates proper utilization of glucose by the cells and reduces blood sugar levels. It has no pronounced peaks of action, because a small amount of insulin is gradually released at a constant rate over 24 hours. A possible association of insulin glargine with an increased risk of cancer has been reported.

Insulin degludec (Tresiba)

 

Ultralong-acting basal insulin indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus who require basal insulin. It is highly protein bound, and following SC, the protein-binding provides a depot effect. The elimination half-life is 25 h and its duration of action is beyond 42 h.

Insulin aspart protamine/insulin aspart (NovoLog 70/30)

 

The combination of insulin aspart protamine with insulin aspart includes 30% rapid-onset insulin (ie, insulin aspart) and 70% intermediate-acting insulin (ie, insulin aspart protamine). Insulin aspart is absorbed more rapidly than regular human insulin, and insulin aspart protamine has a prolonged absorption profile after injection.

Insulin lispro protamine/insulin lispro (Humalog 75/25)

 

The combination of insulin lispro protamine with insulin lispro includes 75% insulin lispro protamine, which has a prolonged duration of action, and 25% insulin lispro, which is a rapid-onset insulin.

Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (Ryzodeg)

 

Combines the ultralong-acting basal insulin (degludec 70 units) and a rapid-acting insulin (aspart 30 units). It is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus.

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Antidiabetics, Amylinomimetics

Class Summary

These amylinomimetic agents elicit endogenous amylin effects by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing postprandial glucagon release, and modulating appetite.

Pramlintide acetate (Symlin)

 

Pramlintide acetate is a synthetic analogue of human amylin, a naturally occurring hormone made in pancreatic beta cells that is deficient in people with type 1 DM. It slows gastric emptying, suppresses postprandial glucagon secretion, and regulates food intake through centrally mediated appetite modulation.

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Hypoglycemia Antidotes

Class Summary

Pancreatic alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce glucagon, a polypeptide hormone. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by promoting hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

Glucagon (GlucaGen)

 

Glucagon elevates blood glucose levels by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and enhancing the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as proteins and fats (gluconeogenesis). It increases hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose in the liver and accelerates hepatic glycogenolysis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Glucagon also increases the force of contraction in the heart and has a relaxant effect on the gastrointestinal tract.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP Professor of Endocrinology, Director of Training Program, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Strelitz Diabetes and Endocrine Disorders Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Physicians, American Diabetes Association, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

George T Griffing, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine

George T Griffing, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, International Society for Clinical Densitometry, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, American College of Medical Practice Executives, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Physicians, American Diabetes Association, American Federation for Medical Research, American Heart Association, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Howard A Bessen, MD Professor of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Program Director, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

Howard A Bessen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP Professor of Emergency Medicine, Professor of Internal Medicine, Program Director, Emergency Medicine, Case Medical Center, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association, American Thoracic Society, Arkansas Medical Society, New York Academy of Medicine, New York Academy ofSciences,and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Aneela Naureen Hussain, MD, FAAFM Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center; Consulting Staff, Department of Family Medicine, University Hospital of Brooklyn

Aneela Naureen Hussain, MD, FAAFM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Women's Association, Medical Society of the State of New York, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Anne L Peters, MD, CDE Director of Clinical Diabetes Programs, Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center

Anne L Peters, MD, CDE is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians and American Diabetes Association

Disclosure: Amylin Honoraria Speaking and teaching; AstraZeneca Consulting fee Consulting; Lilly Consulting fee Consulting; Takeda Consulting fee Consulting; Bristol Myers Squibb Honoraria Speaking and teaching; NovoNordisk Consulting fee Consulting; Medtronic Minimed Consulting fee Consulting; Dexcom Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Roche Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Don S Schalch, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics

Don S Schalch, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Diabetes Association, American Federation for Medical Research, Central Society for Clinical Research, and Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Erik D Schraga, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mills-Peninsula Emergency Medical Associates

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

Miriam T Vincent, MD, PhD Professor and Chair, Department of Family Practice, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center

Miriam T Vincent, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Medical Society of the State of New York, North American Primary Care Research Group, Sigma Xi, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine

Disclosure: Joslin Diabetes Group, Harvard Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Scott R Votey, MD Director of Emergency Medicine Residency, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center; Professor of Medicine/Emergency Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Scott R Votey, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Frederick H Ziel, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Physician-In-Charge, Endocrinology/Diabetes Center, Director of Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente Woodland Hills; Chair of Endocrinology, Co-Chair of Diabetes Complete Care Program, Southern California Permanente Medical Group

Frederick H Ziel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Diabetes Association, American Federation for Medical Research, American Medical Association, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, California Medical Association, Endocrine Society, andInternational Society for Clinical Densitometry

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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