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Choroidal Rupture Workup

  • Author: Lihteh Wu, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
Updated: Mar 08, 2016

Imaging Studies

Because choroidal ruptures occur as a consequence of blunt ocular trauma, the ocular examination must be thorough to rule out orbital fractures or globe ruptures.

CT scanning/MRI

Consider CT scanning and MRI of the eye and orbit under appropriate circumstances.

Fluorescein angiography

Fluorescein angiography may be a useful adjunct to detect CNV.

If CNV is absent, hypofluorescence occurs during the early phase of the angiogram due to disruption of the choriocapillaris. During later stages, hyperfluorescence occurs from the adjacent healthy choriocapillaris.

If CNV is present, early hyperfluorescence followed by late leakage is present on the angiogram.


Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography may be useful if subretinal blood blocks or hides CNV detection on a fluorescein angiogram.

Optical coherence tomography

With the advent of anti-VEGF therapy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) plays a major role in the management of CNV. Most clinicians consider the presence of fluid on the OCT scan as an indication of CNV activity and the need for further treatment.


Histologic Findings

Direct choroidal ruptures are characterized by a complete absence of choroid and RPE. The overlying retina is intact but atrophic.

In indirect choroidal ruptures, CNV is a common finding during the early healing phases. Most CNV is in the subretinal space (Gass type 2). With time, most CNV involutes spontaneously. In a small number of cases, a disciform scar or fibrous tissue may grow into the retina and vitreous cavity.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Lihteh Wu, MD Asociados de Macula Vitreo y Retina de Costa Rica

Lihteh Wu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Club Jules Gonin, Macula Society, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology, Retina Society

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Bayer Health; Quantel Medical; Heidelberg Engineering.


Dhariana Acón, MD Ophthalmologist, Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, Hospital de Guapiles, Costa Rica

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD Clinical Professor of Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Glaucoma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Steve Charles, MD Director of Charles Retina Institute; Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine

Steve Charles, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Macula Society, Retina Society, Club Jules Gonin

Disclosure: Received royalty and consulting fees for: Alcon Laboratories.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Russell P Jayne, MD Consulting Vitreoretinal Surgeon, The Retina Center at Las Vegas

Russell P Jayne, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, American Society of Retina Specialists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Teodoro Evans, MD Consulting Surgeon, Vitreo-Retinal Section, Clinica de Ojos, Costa Rica

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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A 23-year-old man was in a motor vehicle accident 2 months before his presentation. His visual acuity is 20/400, and an afferent pupillary defect is present. Traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture are observed. This is a red-free photograph. (Courtesy of Jorge Gutierrez, MD.)
Mid-phase fluorescein angiogram in a 23-year-old man who was in a motor vehicle accident 2 months before his presentation. (Courtesy of Jorge Gutierrez, MD.)
Late-phase fluorescein angiogram in a 23-year-old who man was in a motor vehicle accident 2 months before his presentation. (Courtesy of Jorge Gutierrez, MD.)
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