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Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis Medication

  • Author: Ellen N Yu-Keh, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 13, 2016
 

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications.

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Systemic corticosteroids

Class Summary

Have both anti-inflammatory (glucocorticoid) and salt-retaining (mineralocorticoid) properties. Glucocorticoids have profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, these agents modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.

Prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, Meticorten)

 

A synthetic glucocorticoid steroid with nonspecific anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.

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Immunosuppressant agents

Class Summary

Inhibit key factors that mediate immune response.

Tacrolimus ointment (Protopic)

 

Macrolide antibiotic that shares many pharmacologic properties with cyclosporine, and is similar in effects but does not produce cytotoxicity. Tacrolimus suppresses cell-mediated immunity by inhibiting DNA translation of specific lymphokines and the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor on activated T cells.

Methotrexate (Folex PFS, Rheumatrex)

 

A folic acid analog. Acts on the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which catalyses the reduction of folate to tetrahydrofolate, a compound necessary for DNA synthesis. Actively replicating cells, such as the leukocyte, are affected and their functions suppressed.

Azathioprine (Imuran)

 

A purine nucleoside analog that is activated in the liver producing metabolites, which interfere with purine metabolism. T- and B-cell functions are suppressed.

Cyclosporin A (Sandimmune, Neoral, SangCyA)

 

An 11-amino acid cyclic peptide and a natural product of fungi. Cyclosporine acts on T-cell replication and activity.

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

 

Nitrogen mustard derivative, which affects cell replication by alkylating purines in DNA and RNA.

Chlorambucil (Leukeran)

 

Slow-acting nitrogen mustard derivative, which interferes with DNA replication, transcription, and nucleic acid function by alkylation.

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Disease modifying agents

Class Summary

These agents alter the immune response to diverse stimuli.

Infliximab (Remicade)

 

Chimeric IgG1k monoclonal antibody that neutralizes cytokine TNF-α and inhibits its binding to TNF-α receptor. Reduces infiltration of inflammatory cells and TNF-α production in inflamed areas. Used with methotrexate in patients who have had inadequate response to methotrexate monotherapy.

Rituximab (Rituxan)

 

It is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 protein, which is found primarily on the surface of B cells.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Ellen N Yu-Keh, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, St Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines

Ellen N Yu-Keh, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Philippine Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; Founder and President, Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation, Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution

C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Rheumatology, American College of Surgeons, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Uveitis Society, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Medical Society, Royal Society of Medicine, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Christopher J Rapuano, MD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Director of the Cornea Service, Co-Director of Refractive Surgery Department, Wills Eye Hospital

Christopher J Rapuano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Ophthalmological Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cornea Society, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, Shire, TearScience, TearLab<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, TearScience.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Fernando H Murillo-Lopez, MD Senior Surgeon, Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES

Fernando H Murillo-Lopez, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Lijing Yao, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

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Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Glue has been placed.
Same patient as in previous image, 1 year posttreatment.
Left eye of same patient as in previous images. Note the corneal thinning and scarring.
 
 
 
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