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Ocular Rosacea

  • Author: Bhairavi Kharod-Dholakia, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Aug 18, 2014
 

Background

Rosacea is a common inflammatory dermatologic condition that affects the midface and eyes.[1, 2, 3, 4] Although the etiology of rosacea is not fully understood, an augmented response of the innate immune system and neurovascular pathways to certain triggers are considered to be major factors in the chronic inflammatory process associated with this condition.[5] The nose, cheeks, forehead, chin, and glabella are the most commonly affected areas. Clinical features include flushing, telangiectasias, erythema, papules and pustules, and rhinophyma. More than 50% of patients with rosacea have ocular manifestations.

See the image below.

Typical dermatologic findings of rosacea, includin Typical dermatologic findings of rosacea, including midfacial papules, pustules, and rhinophyma.

Manifestations of ocular rosacea range from minor irritation, foreign body sensation, dryness, and blurry vision to severe ocular surface disruption and inflammatory keratitis. Patients frequently describe a gritty feeling, and they commonly experience Blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Other ocular findings include lid margin and conjunctival telangiectasias, eyelid thickening, eyelid crusts and scales, chalazia and hordeolum, punctate epithelial erosions, corneal infiltrates, corneal ulcers, corneal scars, and vascularization. Sight-threatening disease is rare with rosacea; however, keratitis can result in sterile corneal ulceration and eventual perforation if not treated aggressively.[6, 7]

Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when patients also suffer from cutaneous disease. However, ocular signs and symptoms may occur prior to cutaneous manifestations in 20% of patients with rosacea. No correlation exists between the severity of ocular disease and the severity of facial rosacea.

The symptoms of rosacea can be treated effectively; however, rosacea is a chronic condition with exacerbations and remissions, which requires long-term therapy to maintain symptomatic control.

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Pathophysiology

The precise pathophysiology of rosacea remains unclear[8, 9] but is comprised of both vascular dysregulation and altered immune system responses and inflammatory changes.[10] Recent research has shown an upregulation of proinflammatory and vasoregulatory genes in rosacea patients. Alterations in the innate immune system responses include an overabundance of cathelicidin (an antimicrobial peptide), along with kallikrein-5, an enzyme involved in processing cathelicidin. Moreover, toll-like receptor 2 activity in the innate immune system is increased in patients with rosacea.[5]

A variety of rosacea triggers have been described including skin colonization with Demodex mites (along with bacteria in their gut)[11] and Staphyloccocus epidermidis.[12] Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to improve rosacea in some patients, and the organism may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation of inflammation in rosacea.

Four distinct rosacea subtypes have been described: erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, papulopustular rosacea, phymatous rosacea, and ocular rosacea.

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Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

More than 10% of the general population exhibits dermatologic characteristics of rosacea; of these, up to 60% experience ocular complications.

International

An epidemiological study in Sweden showed a 10% prevalence of rosacea.[13] A study in Estonia showed a 22% prevalence rate of rosacea, as determined by the American National Rosacea Society Expert Committee (NRSEC) classification.[14]

Mortality/Morbidity

While rosacea is not a life-threatening disease, it is a source of much morbidity because of pruritus, burning, and psychosocial impairments. Approximately 5% of patients with rosacea manifest corneal disease, which can rarely be severe and lead to blindness via corneal ulceration, perforation, secondary infections, or corneal opacification from complete vascularization.

Race

Rosacea is recognized much more commonly in fair-skinned, white patients than in dark-skinned patients. However, because dark skin tones may mask erythema of rosacea, its incidence in this population is likely underreported.

Sex

Women are affected with the papulopustular and erythematotelangiectactic rosacea subtypes twice as often as men; however, the phymatous rosacea subtype develops much more frequently in men. Ocular rosacea affects both sexes equally.

Age

All ages can be affected, including pediatric patients.[15] Peak incidence occurs in the fourth to seventh decades.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Bhairavi Kharod-Dholakia, MD Director, Refractive Service, Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesAssistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

J Bradley Randleman, MD Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Section of Cornea, External Disease and Refractive Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine; Director of Cornea, External Disease and Refractive Surgery Fellowship, Emory University; Physician Member, Section of Ophthalmology, The Emory Clinic

J Bradley Randleman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

C Diane Song, MD Chief of Ophthalmology, Asheville Veterans Affairs Medical Center

C Diane Song, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Evan S Loft, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University

Evan S Loft, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Medical Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Sheetal M Shah, MD Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology in Cornea and External Diseases, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory Eye Center and Emory Vision, Emory University School of Medicine

Sheetal M Shah, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Christopher J Rapuano, MD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Director of the Cornea Service, Co-Director of Refractive Surgery Department, Wills Eye Hospital

Christopher J Rapuano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Ophthalmological Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cornea Society, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, Shire, TearScience, TearLab<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, TearScience.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Joshua A Zeichner, MD Assistant Professor, Director of Cosmetic and Clinical Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Chief of Dermatology, Institute for Family Health at North General

Joshua A Zeichner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, National Psoriasis Foundation

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Valeant for consulting; Received grant/research funds from Medicis for other; Received consulting fee from Galderma for consulting; Received consulting fee from Promius for consulting; Received consulting fee from Pharmaderm for consulting; Received consulting fee from Onset for consulting.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Ryan I Huffman, MD, with the literature review and referencing for this article.

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Typical dermatologic findings of rosacea, including midfacial papules, pustules, and rhinophyma.
Typical findings of rosacea, including papules, pustules, and rhinophyma.
Ocular rosacea. Eyelid telangiectasias with inspissated meibomian glands.
Ocular rosacea. Peripheral corneal pannus.
Ocular rosacea. Extensive corneal pannus with thinning.
Ocular rosacea. Extensive corneal neovascularization and opacification.
 
 
 
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