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Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Atopic Dermatitis Medication

  • Author: R Scott Lowery, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Mar 13, 2014
 

Medication Summary

The most commonly used treatment strategies include antibiotics, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and, less commonly, immunosuppressives (other than steroids), UV light, and hospitalization (rare). For most cases of atopic dermatitis (without AKC), application of topical steroids to the affected area is usually sufficient. Eye involvement may be treated with topical steroids alone, or if symptoms persist, additional mast cell stabilizers (topical), and oral antihistamines (eg, over-the-counter diphenhydramine). AKC may require all of these, and some ophthalmologists recommend that an oral antibiotic be given in addition to a topical antibiotic for the affected eye(s). Antibiotic treatment should target S aureus, the most likely pathogen, and should be chosen based on the patient's allergies and compliance. Immunosuppressives, other than steroids, will only very rarely be required, and these likely will not be prescribed by the ophthalmologist.

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

As anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids are beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis. Dexamethasone, fluorometholone, hydrocortisone, and prednisolone are the most commonly available preparations of ophthalmic steroids in the United States. Preparations range from 0.05-2.5%. For most topical purposes, a 0.5% preparation of prednisolone, cortisone, or hydrocortisone is adequate.

Prednisolone ophthalmic

 

Decreases inflammation by suppressing migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reducing capillary permeability.

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Mast cell stabilizers

Class Summary

May be useful as prophylaxis against exacerbation of the disease.

Lodoxamide (Alomide)

 

Inhibits degranulation of mast cells and helps prevent histamine release.

Cromolyn (Crolom, Opticrom)

 

Inhibits degranulation of sensitized mast cells following exposure to specific antigens.

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Oral antihistamines

Class Summary

Useful in decreasing itching and scratching associated with atopic dermatitis.

Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril, Vistazine)

 

Antagonizes H1 receptors in periphery; may suppress histamine activity in subcortical region of CNS; may assist in sleep.

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Topical antibiotics

Class Summary

Atopic conjunctivitis requires the use of topical antibiotics that particularly target S aureus, the most common pathogen. Since most ophthalmic antibiotics will target this bacterium, physician discretion, reference to package inserts, and the ophthalmic Physicians' Desk Reference are recommended. Patients' allergies and compliance should be considered.

Gatifloxacin ophthalmic (Zymar)

 

Fluoroquinolone with activity against streptococci, staphylococci, Corynebacterium propinquum, and Haemophilus influenzae; inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and, consequently, growth.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

R Scott Lowery, MD Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital

R Scott Lowery, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Arkansas Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD Clinical Professor of Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Glaucoma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Christopher J Rapuano, MD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Director of the Cornea Service, Co-Director of Refractive Surgery Department, Wills Eye Hospital

Christopher J Rapuano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Ophthalmological Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cornea Society, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, Shire, TearScience, TearLab<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, TearScience.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Jack L Wilson, PhD Distinguished Professor, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine

Jack L Wilson, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Anatomists, American Heart Association, American Association of Clinical Anatomists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Typical atopic dermatitis on the face of an infant.
 
 
 
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