Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Kaposi Sarcoma Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Jacqueline Freudenthal, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 08, 2015
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jacqueline Freudenthal, MD Co-Investigator, Ophthalmic Consultants Centre, Toronto

Jacqueline Freudenthal, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Canadian Ophthalmological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Kevin Ryan Yuhan, MD Attending Physician, Cornea, Cataract, Refractive and External Diseases, Southern California Permanente Medical Group

Kevin Ryan Yuhan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Phi Beta Kappa, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Timothy T You, MD Consulting Surgeon in Ophthalmology, Private Practice

Timothy T You, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD Clinical Professor of Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Glaucoma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Christopher J Rapuano, MD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Director of the Cornea Service, Co-Director of Refractive Surgery Department, Wills Eye Hospital

Christopher J Rapuano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Ophthalmological Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cornea Society, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, Shire, TearScience, TearLab<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, TearScience.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Anastasios J Kanellopoulos, MD Assistant Program Director, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York University

Anastasios J Kanellopoulos, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Eye Bank Association of America, and International Society of Refractive Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Kaposi M. Idiopathisches multiple Pigment-sarkom der Haut. Arch Dermatol. Syphilol. 1872:4. [Medline].

  2. Jones JL, Hanson DL, Dworkin MS, et al. Surveillance for AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses, 1992-1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1999 Apr 16. 48(2):1-22. [Medline].

  3. Holland GN, Gottlieb MS, Yee RD, et al. Ocular disorders associated with a new severe acquired cellular immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982 Apr. 93(4):393-402. [Medline].

  4. Mowatt L. Ophthalmic manifestations of HIV in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy era. West Indian Med J. 2013. 62(4):305-12. [Medline].

  5. Becker KN, Becker NM. Ocular manifestations seen in HIV. Dis Mon. 2014 Jun. 60(6):268-75. [Medline].

  6. Verma V, Shen D, Sieving PC, Chan CC. The role of infectious agents in the etiology of ocular adnexal neoplasia. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul-Aug. 53(4):312-31. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, et al. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science. 1994 Dec 16. 266(5192):1865-9. [Medline].

  8. Pantry SN, Medveczky PG. Epigenetic regulation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication. Semin Cancer Biol. 2009 Jun. 19(3):153-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  9. Ye F, Zhou F, Bedolla RG, Jones T, Lei X, Kang T, et al. Reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide mediates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation from latency. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May. 7(5):e1002054. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Sakakibara S, Tosato G. Viral interleukin-6: role in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: associated malignancies. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011 Nov. 31(11):791-801. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Ye F, Lei X, Gao SJ. Mechanisms of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency and Reactivation. Adv Virol. 2011. 2011:[Medline]. [Full Text].

  12. Traylen CM, Patel HR, Fondaw W, et al. Virus reactivation: a panoramic view in human infections. Future Virol. 2011 Apr. 6(4):451-463. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: AIDS--United States, 2000. JAMA. 2002 Aug 14. 288(6):691-2. [Medline].

  14. Mansour AM. Adnexal findings in AIDS. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993 Dec. 9(4):273-9. [Medline].

  15. Gigase PL, de Muynck A, de Feyter M. Kaposi's sarcoma in Zaire. IARC Sci Publ. 1984. 549-57. [Medline].

  16. Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ. Kaposi sarcoma in unusual locations. BMC Cancer. 2008. 8:190. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Dugel PU, Gill PS, Frangieh GT, Rao NA. Ocular adnexal Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Nov 15. 110(5):500-3. [Medline].

  18. Meyers D. Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS. SADJ. 2005. 60:386-387. [Medline].

  19. Emina MO, Odjimogho SE. Ocular problems in HIV and AIDS patients in Nigeria. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Dec. 87(12):979-84. [Medline].

  20. [Guideline] Mofenson LM, Brady MT, Danner SP, et al. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009 Sep 4. 58:1-166. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  21. Brasnu E, Wechsler B, Bron A, et al. Efficacy of interferon-alpha for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-associated uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Oct. 140(4):746-8. [Medline].

  22. Hummer J, Gass JD, Huang AJ. Conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma treated with interferon alpha-2a. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Oct 15. 116(4):502-3. [Medline].

  23. Qureshi YA, Karp CL, Dubovy SR. Intralesional interferon alpha-2b therapy for adnexal Kaposi sarcoma. Cornea. 2009 Sep. 28(8):941-3. [Medline].

  24. Hermans P. Epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentations and therapeutic approaches in Kaposi's sarcoma: 15-year lessons from AIDS. Biomed Pharmacother. 1998. 52(10):440-6. [Medline].

  25. Samaniego F, Bryant JL, Liu N, et al. Induction of programmed cell death in Kaposi's sarcoma cells by preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Jan 20. 91(2):135-43. [Medline].

  26. Simonart T, Noel JC, Andrei G, et al. Iron as a potential co-factor in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma?. Int J Cancer. 1998 Dec 9. 78(6):720-6. [Medline].

  27. Hermans P, Clumeck N, Picard O, et al. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients with visceral manifestations. Response to human chorionic gonadotropin preparations. J Hum Virol. 1998 Jan-Feb. 1(2):82-9. [Medline].

  28. Bailey J, Pluda JM, Foli A, et al. Phase I/II study of intermittent all-trans-retinoic acid, alone and in combination with interferon alfa-2a, in patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Aug. 13(8):1966-74. [Medline].

  29. Dugel PU, Gill PS, Frangieh GT, Rao NA. Treatment of ocular adnexal Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1992 Jul. 99(7):1127-32. [Medline].

  30. Korn BS, Park DJ, Kikkawa DO. Intralesional mitomycin-C for the treatment of conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Jul-Aug. 27(4):e88-90. [Medline].

  31. Shuler JD, Holland GN, Miles SA, et al. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Jun. 107(6):858-62. [Medline].

  32. Gill PS, Wernz J, Scadden DT, et al. Randomized phase III trial of liposomal daunorubicin versus doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Aug. 14(8):2353-64. [Medline].

  33. Northfelt DW, Dezube BJ, Thommes JA, et al. Efficacy of pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma after failure of standard chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Feb. 15(2):653-9. [Medline].

  34. Welles L, Saville MW, Lietzau J, et al. Phase II trial with dose titration of paclitaxel for the therapy of human immunodeficiency virus-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Mar. 16(3):1112-21. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Section of eyelid with Kaposi sarcoma lesion under high magnification. This tissue section demonstrates increased angiogenesis and spindle-shaped cells. Courtesy of Ben Glasgow, MD, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute.
Section of eyelid with Kaposi sarcoma lesion under high magnification. This tissue section demonstrates endothelium-lined vascular channels and proliferation of spindle-shaped cells. Increased angiogenesis with erythrocyte extravasation is observed. Courtesy of Ben Glasgow, MD, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute.
The inferior conjunctiva is involved more commonly than the superior conjunctiva in Kaposi sarcoma. Courtesy of Gary N Holland, MD, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute.
Kaposi sarcoma involvement of the eyelid. Courtesy of Gary N Holland, MD, University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.