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Acrodermatitis Enteropathica in Ophthalmology Workup

  • Author: John D Sheppard, Jr, MD, MMSc; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 17, 2014
 

Laboratory Studies

See the list below:

  • Plasma zinc levels are low and characteristic histopathologic findings are seen on skin biopsy.
  • Hair, urine, and parotid saliva zinc levels, as well as serum alkaline phosphatase activity (which lowers later in the disease) may be helpful.
  • Maternal breast milk zinc concentrations also may help differentiate AE from acquired zinc deficiency.
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Other Tests

See the list below:

  • The gene for AE is localized to chromosomal region 8q24.3 and the SLC39A4 gene, thereby identified as the gene for AE. SLC39A4 mutations have been demonstrated in several families with AE, and, in the initial Nakano study, 2 Japanese families with AE and with SLC39A4 mutations were described.[10] Their mutation detection strategy consisted of polymerase chain reaction amplification of all 12 exons and flanking intronic sequences, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing. It revealed 3 novel mutations, 1017ins53, which creates a premature termination codon, and 2 mis-sense mutations, R95C and Q303H. These techniques can be used to identify carriers, newborns, or fetuses by amniocentesis.
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Histologic Findings

Histopathologic examination of the skin and eyelids reveals parakeratosis of the stratum corneum with occasional neutrophils and intracellular edema. The granular cell layer is diminished, and the upper epidermis demonstrates pallor and edema. Focal dyskeratosis is seen. The epidermis may be psoriasiform or atrophic. Occasionally, subcorneal (cutaneous) pustules are seen.

One case report details the ocular histopathology of a child who died before efficacious treatment was available. The findings include corneal epithelial thinning and loss of polarity of corneal epithelial cells, anterior corneal scarring and loss of Bowman membrane, cataract formation, ciliary body atrophy, retinal degeneration, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) depigmentation, and optic atrophy.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

John D Sheppard, Jr, MD, MMSc Professor of Ophthalmology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Clinical Director, Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Residency Research Program Director, Eastern Virginia Medical School; President, Virginia Eye Consultants

John D Sheppard, Jr, MD, MMSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Uveitis Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Timothy G Woodall, MD Dermatology, Carolinas Medical Center - Pineville

Timothy G Woodall, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, South Carolina Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD Clinical Professor of Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Glaucoma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Christopher J Rapuano, MD Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Director of the Cornea Service, Co-Director of Refractive Surgery Department, Wills Eye Hospital

Christopher J Rapuano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Ophthalmological Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, International Society of Refractive Surgery, Cornea Society, Eye Bank Association of America

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cornea Society, Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, Shire, TearScience, TearLab<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Allergan, Bausch & Lomb, Bio-Tissue, TearScience.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS Assistant Professor of Surgery (Ophthalmology), New York College of Medicine (NYCOM); Director of Residency Ophthalmology Training, The Institute for Family Health and Mid-Hudson Family Practice Residency Program; Staff Ophthalmologist, Telluride Medical Center

Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, American Intraocular Lens Society, American Medical Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Medical Society of the State of New York, New York State Ophthalmological Society, Outpatient Ophthalmic Surgery Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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Sharply demarcated, brightly erythematous periorificial plaque in an infant with acrodermatitis enteropathica.
 
 
 
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