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Acquired Esotropia

  • Author: Mauro Fioretto, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Sep 30, 2014
 

Background

Esotropia is a type of strabismus or eye misalignment. The term is derived from 2 Greek words: ésò, meaning inward, and trépò, meaning turn. In esotropia, the eyes are crossed; that is, while one eye looks straight ahead, the other eye is turned in toward the nose. This inward deviation of the eyes can begin as early as infancy, later in childhood, or even into adulthood.

Acquired esotropia can occur after infancy and is not always responsive to farsighted glasses; because of this, it does not fall into the categories of congenital esotropia or accommodative esotropia, which are described in other articles. However, an accommodative component may be associated.

Although acquired esotropia can occur in patients aged 1-8 years, it typically develops in patients aged 2-5 years and appears to be infrequently associated with an underlying disease. With acquired esotropia, the angle of deviation is relatively small, and early surgical correction (when indicated) is more likely to achieve bifoveal fixation for these patients than for those with congenital esotropia.

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Pathophysiology

Additional laboratory and clinical research often is required to determine the etiology of the acquired strabismus. Scientists agree that some strabismus cases arise from a primary motor anomaly, while others arise from a primary sensory anomaly. Although different treatment approaches clearly are needed for different conditions, no agreement exists on the details for many conditions.

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Epidemiology

Frequency

International

Of those children with esotropia, 10.4% of them are diagnosed with acquired esotropia.

Mortality/Morbidity

Organic pathologies have been diagnosed in patients initially presenting with strabismus. In a recent study, 11.52% of patients with strabismus had posterior segment abnormalities. The most common diagnoses included Toxoplasma chorioretinitis, morning glory anomaly, Toxocara retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats disease. The mean age of onset of the deviation was found to be significantly lower in patients with esotropia. No correlation existed between the degree of visual impairment and the direction of deviation. This fact emphasizes the importance of performing a fundus examination in each patient presenting with strabismus.

Race

No racial predilection exists.

Sex

No sexual predilection exists.

Age

The median age of onset for children with acquired esotropia is 31.4 months (range, 8-63 mo), with a mean initial angle of deviation of 24 prism diopters (PD).

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Mauro Fioretto, MD Professor of Ophthalmology, University Eye Clinic of Genova; Head of Ophthalmology Department, Hospital of Casale Monferrato, Italy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Antonio Pascotto, MD Consulting Ophthalmologist, Pascotto, Istituto per la Salute degli Occhi, Clinica Mediterranea, Italy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Sergio Claudio Saccà, PhD Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurological and Visual Sciences, Ospedale San Martino, Italy

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Vincenzo Orfeo, MD Head, Operating Unit, Clinica Mediterranea, Naples, Italy

Vincenzo Orfeo, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

J James Rowsey, MD Former Director of Corneal Services, St Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute

J James Rowsey, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida Medical Association, Sigma Xi, Southern Medical Association, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael J Bartiss, OD, MD Medical Director, Ophthalmology, Family Eye Care of the Carolinas and Surgery Center of Pinehurst

Michael J Bartiss, OD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, North Carolina Medical Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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