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Infantile Esotropia Follow-up

  • Author: Vicente Victor D Ocampo, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Aug 26, 2014
 

Further Outpatient Care

The infant typically is seen 3-10 days after the surgery. Visual acuity is checked, an afferent pupillary defect is ruled out, and a good red reflex is elicited from both fundi. Furthermore, conjunctival incisions are inspected with a penlight for dehiscence and infection. Most importantly, alignment is assessed, and eye movements are observed for gross underaction and a slipped muscle. If no excessive inflammation is noted, use of antibiotic-corticosteroid ointments may be stopped at this time.

Surgical correction is the first step in the visual rehabilitation of children with infantile esotropia. Patients who are aligned successfully early in life still need careful postoperative monitoring for amblyopia, nystagmus, inferior oblique overactions, dissociated vertical divergence, and accommodative esotropia.

A follow-up visit usually is scheduled 3-4 months after the initial postoperative consult. At this point, occlusion therapy can be restarted if amblyopia is present. In cases of significant overcorrection or undercorrection, while the patient may be seen earlier, reoperations seldom are performed before the third to fourth month postoperative period. If alignment is optimal (eg, within 8 PD of orthophoria) and acuity is equal in both eyes, subsequent follow-up visits are scheduled every 6 months until age 6 years. At this point, the risk of strabismic amblyopia is decreased, and yearly visits are sufficient. After age 10, consultations are performed on an as-needed basis.

Accommodative esotropia may develop following surgical correction of infantile esotropia. In a study by Uretmen et al, it was noted that accommodative esotropia occurred at a mean of 8.8 months (range, 6-24 mo) after the initial surgical alignment, with a mean age of onset of 43.2 months.[35] Correction with the appropriate lenses must be instituted to prevent the adverse effects of accommodative esotropia on sensory and motor functions.

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Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

Aside from the antibiotic-steroid ointment used in the immediate postoperative period, no other medications are needed.

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Complications

Complications of initial surgical correction of infantile esotropia include the following:

  • Marked overcorrection and undercorrection
  • Infection
  • Scleral perforation
  • Foreign body granuloma at the suture site
  • Allergic reaction to suture material
  • Conjunctival inclusion cyst
  • Conjunctival scarring
  • Anterior segment ischemia
  • Change in eyelid position
  • Lost muscle
  • Slipped muscle
  • Oculocardiac reflex
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Prognosis

It is accepted that better ocular alignment and visual prognosis can be achieved if surgical correction is performed before age 2 years. Long-term follow-up studies on esotropic infants who underwent surgical alignment by age 2 years have shown that close to 60% achieve a small angle (< 20 PD) cosmetically acceptable strabismus. Although some binocular vision is achieved, it generally is subnormal, often involving peripheral fusion. Factors contributing to poor ocular alignment and visual prognosis include persistent preoperative amblyopia, latent manifest nystagmus, and myopia from -2.5 to 5.0 D.

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Patient Education

Parents and other caregivers must be educated on the various presentations of infantile esotropia to ensure early detection and management.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Vicente Victor D Ocampo, Jr, MD Head, Uveitis and Ocular Immunology Service, Veterans Memorial Medical Center, Philippines; Head, Uveitis and Ocular Immunology Service, Ospital ng Makati Medical Center, Philippines; Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Philippines

Vicente Victor D Ocampo, Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Philippine Ocular Inflammation Society, Philippine Academy of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Consulting Staff, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; Founder and President, Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation, Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution

C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Rheumatology, American College of Surgeons, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Uveitis Society, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Medical Society, Royal Society of Medicine, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD Clinical Professor of Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Simon K Law, MD, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Glaucoma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

J James Rowsey, MD Former Director of Corneal Services, St Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute

J James Rowsey, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida Medical Association, Sigma Xi, Southern Medical Association, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Gerhard W Cibis, MD Clinical Professor, Director of Pediatric Ophthalmology Service, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas School of Medicine

Gerhard W Cibis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Ophthalmological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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