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Acquired Nystagmus Treatment & Management

  • Author: Christopher M Bardorf, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC  more...
 
Updated: May 13, 2016
 

Medical Care

Any medications that may be causing the nystagmus should be discontinued in conjunction with the patient's internist, neurologist, and/or pediatrician.

Significant refractive errors should be corrected. Contact lenses may be preferred over spectacles because the patient may continue to look through the optical center of the contact lens if a head turn secondary to the presence of a null zone exists. Although, this usually applies only to congenital nystagmus.[15]

Base-out prisms (to induce convergence) can be used to treat downbeat nystagmus. Prisms may be useful prior to considering surgery for a face turn. Fresnel prisms directed with the base opposite the null zone (eg, for a right face turn with a null zone in left gaze, the prism over the right eye would be base out and a prism over the left eye would be base in). Null zones are more characteristic of congenital nystagmus; thus, prisms may not be applicable to most forms of acquired nystagmus.[15]

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Surgical Care

See the list below:

  • Removing the inciting etiology if possible (eg, intracranial tumors, ocular media opacities)
  • Botulinum toxin may be used to treat patients with acquired nystagmus to dampen the nystagmus and to improve visual acuity and to decrease oscillopsia.
    • The toxin may be injected into the rectus muscles (2.5 U per muscle) or may be given as a retrobulbar injection[16] (10-25 U in 0.1-1 cm3).
    • Multiple injections usually are necessary as the effect of the toxin wears off.
    • Patients whose symptoms improve with botulinum toxin injection may be able to discern when the effect of the toxin begins to diminish as the symptoms may begin to recur.
    • A disadvantage of this treatment option is that botulinum toxin impairs all types of eye movement (eg, saccades, smooth pursuit).
    • Complications of toxin injection include ptosis, diplopia, increase of nystagmus in the noninjected eye, and, rarely, globe rupture.
  • Extraocular muscle surgery for correction of nystagmus is based on surgically shifting the null zone into primary position. Again, null zones are more characteristic of congenital nystagmus; thus, they may not be applicable to most forms of acquired nystagmus. Retroequatorial rectus muscle recessions have been shown to be effective in treating acquired nystagmus without a null point, [17]  as has extraocular muscle tenotomies with reattachment. [18]
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Consultations

Neurologic or neuro-ophthalmic consultation should be considered.

Neurosurgical or oncologic consultation should be sought in cases with a neoplastic etiology.

Otolaryngologic consultation should be considered in cases of benign positional vertigo or other peripheral vestibular disorders.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Christopher M Bardorf, MD, MS Ophthalmologist, Children's Eye Physicians

Christopher M Bardorf, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Enrique Garcia-Valenzuela, MD, PhD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary; Consulting Staff, Vitreo-Retinal Surgery, Midwest Retina Consultants, SC, Parkside Center

Enrique Garcia-Valenzuela, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Retina Society, Society for Neuroscience

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Gregory Van Stavern, MD Attending Physician, Department of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine

Gregory Van Stavern, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Hospital for Sick Children and Sunnybrook Hospital

Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Canadian Ophthalmological Society, North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, Canadian Society of Oculoplastic Surgery, European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Canadian Medical Association, Ontario Medical Association, Statistical Society of Canada, Chinese Canadian Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael J Bartiss, OD, MD Medical Director, Ophthalmology, Family Eye Care of the Carolinas and Surgery Center of Pinehurst

Michael J Bartiss, OD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, North Carolina Medical Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Brian R Younge, MD Professor of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine

Brian R Younge, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Ophthalmological Society, and North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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