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Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli Medication

  • Author: Donny W Suh, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Feb 05, 2016
 

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to eradicate the E coli infection, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications.

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Antibiotics (fluoroquinolone)

Class Summary

Therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting.

Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic (Ciloxan)

 

Inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting DNA gyrase. Indicated for superficial ocular infections of the conjunctiva or cornea caused by strains of microorganisms susceptible to ciprofloxacin.

Ofloxacin ophthalmic (Ocuflox)

 

Pyridine carboxylic acid derivative with broad-spectrum bactericidal effect. Inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting DNA gyrase. Indicated for superficial ocular infections of the conjunctiva or cornea caused by strains of microorganisms susceptible to ofloxacin.

Tobramycin ophthalmic (Tobrex, AKTob)

 

Interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits, which results in a defective bacterial cell membrane. Available as a solution, ointment, and lotion.

Gentamicin ophthalmic (Ocumycin, Genoptic)

 

Aminoglycoside antibiotic used for gram-negative bacterial coverage.

Cefazolin (Kefzol, Zolicef)

 

First-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for gram-positive bacterial coverage. Commonly used in combination with an aminoglycoside to achieve broad spectrum. This 50-133 mg/mL solution must be compounded.

Vancomycin (Lyphocin, Vancoled, Vancocin)

 

Potent antibiotic directed against gram-positive organisms and active against Enterococcus species. Useful in the treatment of septicemia and skin structure infections. Indicated for patients who cannot receive, or have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or have infections with resistant staphylococci. For abdominal penetrating injuries, it is combined with an agent active against enteric flora and/or anaerobes.

To avoid toxicity, current recommendation is to assay vancomycin trough levels after third dose drawn 0.5 h prior to next dosing. Use creatinine clearance to adjust dose in patients diagnosed with renal impairment.

Used in conjunction with gentamicin for prophylaxis in patients with penicillin allergy undergoing GI or genitourinary procedures.

Gatifloxacin ophthalmic (Zymar)

 

Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone ophthalmic indicated for bacterial conjunctivitis. Elicits a dual mechanism of action by possessing an 8-methoxy group, thereby inhibiting the enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase is involved in bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Topoisomerase IV is essential in chromosomal DNA partitioning during bacterial cell division.

Levofloxacin ophthalmic (Quixin)

 

S-enantiomer of ofloxacin. Inhibits DNA gyrase in susceptible organisms, thereby inhibiting relaxation of supercoiled DNA and promoting breakage of DNA strands.

Moxifloxacin ophthalmic (Vigamox)

 

Indicated to treat bacterial conjunctivitis. Elicits antimicrobial effects. Inhibits topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and IV enzymes. DNA gyrase is essential in bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Topoisomerase IV plays a key role in chromosomal DNA portioning during bacterial cell division.

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Cycloplegics

Class Summary

Instillation of a long-acting cycloplegic agent can relax any ciliary muscle spasm that can cause a deep aching pain and photophobia.

Scopolamine ophthalmic (Isopto, Isopto Hyoscine Ophthalmic)

 

Blocks the action of acetylcholine at parasympathetic sites in the smooth muscle, producing pupillary dilation (mydriasis) and paralysis of accommodation (cycloplegia).

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. Corticosteroids modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.

Prednisolone ophthalmic (Pred Forte)

 

Treats acute inflammations following eye surgery or other types of insults to eye. Decreases inflammation and corneal neovascularization. Suppresses migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reverses increased capillary permeability. In cases of bacterial infections, concomitant use of anti-infective agents is mandatory; if signs and symptoms do not improve after 2 days, reevaluate patient. Dosing may be reduced, but advise patients not to discontinue therapy prematurely.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Donny W Suh, MD, FAAP Chief of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Children's Hospital and Medical Center; Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center

Donny W Suh, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Medical Association, Iowa Medical Society, National Eye Care Project

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

J James Rowsey, MD Former Director of Corneal Services, St Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute

J James Rowsey, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida Medical Association, Sigma Xi, Southern Medical Association, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Kilbourn Gordon, III, MD, FACEP Urgent Care Physician

Kilbourn Gordon, III, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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