Entropion Treatment & Management
- Author: Christopher DeBacker, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD more...
Medical therapy may be warranted for patients who decline surgery and as a temporizing maneuver in patients who may improve spontaneously.
Ocular lubrication and tear preparations are helpful for protecting the ocular surface and also may break the cycle in patients with spastic entropion due to dry eye syndrome.
Eyelid hygiene, antibiotics, and corticosteroids are useful for the treatment of blepharitis, which may cause spastic entropion.
Small amounts of botulinum toxin (BOTOX®) (approximately 5 U) are quite effective for the treatment of spastic entropion by weakening the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle.
Patients with cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid may benefit from systemic chemotherapy, usually dapsone.
Multiple surgical procedures have been described for the management of entropion.[4, 5, 6, 7] The procedure chosen must be appropriate for the class of entropion being treated.
The most common procedures utilized in the management are discussed below.
Temporizing Quickert-Rathbun sutures
They are effective for many cases of spastic entropion, as well as for some cases of involutional entropion in which the patient refuses or is medically unable to undergo more definitive procedures.
Full-thickness eyelid sutures (usually gut suture) from the inferior fornix anteriorly toward the lashes are used to torque the eyelid margin away from the globe. Tissue reaction to the gut suture helps to create a cicatrix in the eyelid that maintains the eyelid in the everted position.
Repair of involutional entropion
It may require repair of the horizontal laxity via medial and/or lateral canthal tightening.
The vertical component is best repaired by vertically shortening or reattaching the lower eyelid retractors to the inferior border of the tarsus via a lower eyelid transcutaneous approach.
A small amount of the pretarsal orbicularis oculi can be resected concurrently to prevent further overriding of the tarsus.
Procedures for the repair of cicatricial entropion
They will depend on the degree of scarring and entropion, the etiology of the cicatricial changes, and the status of the tarsal plate.[8, 9]
Mild cases can be treated with a transverse blepharotomy with marginal rotation (Wies procedure).
More extensive scarring may require oral mucous membrane (eg, buccal mucosa) or cadaveric dermis (eg, Alloderm) grafts.
It is important that the inflammatory process is in a quiescent state in OCP patients prior to any procedure that violates the conjunctiva. Any manipulation of the conjunctiva in these patients may cause a recurrence of inflammation with failure of the procedure.
Assess the status of the tarsal plate in all cases of cicatricial entropion. If it is distorted, place a facsimile of tarsus following excision of the distorted portions of the tarsal plate. Materials such as autologous tarsus, hard palate grafts, and chondromucosal grafts have been used successfully for this purpose.
Consultation with an internist or a hematologist is recommended for OCP patients requiring immunosuppressive medications, as well as for systemic evaluation to rule out other autoimmune diseases.
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