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Sudden Visual Loss Medication

  • Author: Gino A Farina, MD, FACEP, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC  more...
 
Updated: May 18, 2016
 

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy in sudden visual loss are to reduce morbidity and prevent complications.

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Antiplatelet agents

Class Summary

Inhibit platelet function perhaps by blocking cyclooxygenase and subsequent aggregation. Antiplatelet therapy has been shown to reduce mortality by reducing the risk of fatal strokes, fatal myocardial infarctions, and vascular death in patients at risk.

Aspirin (Ascriptin, Aspirtab, Aspercin, Bayer Aspirin, Buffinol)

 

Irreversibly inhibits the formation of cyclooxygenase, thus preventing the formation of thromboxane A2, a platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor. Platelet inhibition lasts for the life of the cell (approximately 10 d).

Clopidogrel (Plavix)

 

Selectively inhibits ADP binding to platelet receptor and subsequent ADP-mediated activation of glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Aspirin and dipyridamole (Aggrenox)

 

Aspirin irreversibly inhibits formation of cyclooxygenase, thus preventing formation of thromboxane A2, a platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor. Platelet-inhibition lasts for life of cell (approximately 10 d).

Dipyridamole is a platelet adhesion inhibitor that possibly inhibits RBC uptake of adenosine, itself an inhibitor of platelet reactivity. In addition, may inhibit phosphodiesterase activity leading to increased cyclic-3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate within platelets and formation of the potent platelet activator thromboxane A2.

Each tablet contains 25 mg aspirin and 200 mg dipyridamole for total of 50 mg aspirin and 400 mg dipyridamole per day.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Gino A Farina, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Professor of Emergency Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine at Hofstra University; Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Gino A Farina, MD, FACEP, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE Founding Editor-in-Chief, eMedicine Neurology; Founder and CEO/CMO, PHLT Consultants; Chief Medical Officer, MeMD Inc

Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Academy of Neurology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Lien Hong Lam, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, North Shore Long Island Jewish Hospital

Lien Hong Lam, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ellen M Menocal, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

J James Rowsey, MD Former Director of Corneal Services, St Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute

J James Rowsey, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida Medical Association, Sigma Xi, Southern Medical Association, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Hospital for Sick Children and Sunnybrook Hospital

Edsel Ing, MD, FRCSC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Canadian Ophthalmological Society, North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, Canadian Society of Oculoplastic Surgery, European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Canadian Medical Association, Ontario Medical Association, Statistical Society of Canada, Chinese Canadian Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Kilbourn Gordon, III, MD, FACEP Urgent Care Physician

Kilbourn Gordon, III, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Angel Feliciano, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

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Hyphema - Blood in anterior chamber resulting from trauma.
Central retinal vein occlusion - Diffuse retinal hemorrhages extending to periphery of fundus, "blood and thunder" appearance.
 
 
 
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