Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Workup

  • Author: Lihteh Wu, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 17, 2016
 

Laboratory Studies

The authors of the Branch Vein Occlusion Study (BVOS) have recommended against extensive testing in patients with typical BRVO.[17]

Certain laboratory studies may be useful in atypical cases (ie, bilateral cases, those in young patients, those in patients with a personal or family history for thromboembolism). Determinations of the following may be helpful:

  • Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
  • Protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden, and antithrombin III
  • Homocysteine
  • Antinuclear antibody (ANA), lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin
  • Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) results
Next

Imaging Studies

Fluorescein angiography

A fluorescein angiogram is obtained as soon as the hemorrhages have cleared if the patient's vision is still depressed. The test is usually performed 3 months after the event.

The purpose is to determine the cause of the visual loss (eg, macular edema, macular ischemia). If the visual loss is secondary to macular edema, laser photocoagulation in a grid pattern may be of benefit. Conversely, if macular ischemia is responsible for the visual loss, laser photocoagulation should not be offered.

Fluorescein angiograms should be performed periodically to assess for retinal nonperfusion. Wide-angle angiograms are preferred.

Angiogram images are shown below.

Patient with an old branch retinal vein occlusion Patient with an old branch retinal vein occlusion in which the hemorrhages have cleared. Note lipid exudation and evidence of cystoid macular edema.
Arterial phase of an angiogram demonstrates the laArterial phase of an angiogram demonstrates the lack of filling in the first branch arteriole of the superior temporal artery.
Late phase of an angiogram demonstrates late leakaLate phase of an angiogram demonstrates late leakage in the macular area.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Given its ability to measure retinal thickness in a quantitative fashion, OCT is a useful adjunct in the follow-up of patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO.

Previous
Next

Histologic Findings

Histopathologic studies confirm the importance of arteriovenous crossings in the pathogenesis of this condition. Inner retinal ischemic atrophic areas have been described distal to the occlusion site. Variable degrees of arteriolar sclerosis have been reported. An intravascular fresh or recanalized thrombus is often found at the site of venous occlusion.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Lihteh Wu, MD Asociados de Macula Vitreo y Retina de Costa Rica

Lihteh Wu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Club Jules Gonin, Macula Society, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology, Retina Society

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Bayer Health; Quantel Medical; Heidelberg Engineering.

Coauthor(s)

Diana Monge-Lopez, MBBS Research Fellow, Instituto de Cirugía Ocular, Costa Rica

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Steve Charles, MD Director of Charles Retina Institute; Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine

Steve Charles, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Macula Society, Retina Society, Club Jules Gonin

Disclosure: Received royalty and consulting fees for: Alcon Laboratories.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

V Al Pakalnis, MD, PhD Professor of Ophthalmology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Chief of Ophthalmology, Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center

V Al Pakalnis, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, South Carolina Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Teodoro Evans, MD Consulting Surgeon, Vitreo-Retinal Section, Clinica de Ojos, Costa Rica

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Pe’er J, Shweiki D, Itin A, Hemo I, Gnessin H, Keshet E. Hypoxiainduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by retinal cells is a common factor in neovascularizing ocular diseases. Lab Invest. 1995. 72:638-645.

  2. Zhang SX, Wang JJ, Gao G, Parke K, Ma JX. Pigment epithelium-derived factor downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and inhibits VEGF-VEGF receptor 2 binding in diabetic retinopathy. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Aug. 37(1):1-12. [Medline].

  3. Rehak M, Hollborn M, Iandiev I, Pannicke T, Karl A, Wurm A, et al. Retinal gene expression and Müller cell responses after branch retinal vein occlusion in the rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 May. 50(5):2359-67. [Medline].

  4. Campochiaro PA, Hafiz G, Shah SM, Nguyen QD, Ying H, Do DV. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions: implication of VEGF as a critical stimulator. Mol Ther. 2008 Apr. 16(4):791-9. [Medline].

  5. Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M, et al. Pathogenesis of macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Aug. 140(2):256-61. [Medline].

  6. Pfister M, Rothweiler F, Michaelis M, Cinatl J Jr, Schubert R, Koch FH. Correlation of inflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines from undiluted vitreous samples with spectral domain OCT scans, in untreated branch retinal vein occlusion. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013. 7:1061-7. [Medline].

  7. Klein R, Moss SE, Meuer SM, Klein BE. The 15-year cumulative incidence of retinal vein occlusion: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Apr. 126(4):513-8. [Medline].

  8. Cheung N, Klein R, Wang JJ, Cotch MF, Islam AF, Klein BE. Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Oct. 49(10):4297-302. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  9. Lim LL, Cheung N, Wang JJ, Islam FM, Mitchell P, Saw SM. Prevalence and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion in an Asian population. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct. 92(10):1316-9. [Medline].

  10. Xu L, Liu WW, Wang YX, Yang H, Jonas JB. Retinal vein occlusions and mortality: the Beijing Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Dec. 144(6):972-3. [Medline].

  11. Rogers S, McIntosh RL, Cheung N, Lim L, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. The prevalence of retinal vein occlusion: pooled data from population studies from the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Ophthalmology. 2010 Feb. 117(2):313-9.e1. [Medline].

  12. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Meuer SM. The epidemiology of retinal vein occlusion: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000. 98:133-41; discussion 141-3. [Medline].

  13. Christoffersen N, Gade E, Knudsen L, Juel K, Larsen M. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 2007 Jun. 114(6):1186-9. [Medline].

  14. Risk factors for branch retinal vein occlusion. The Eye Disease Case-control Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Sep 15. 116(3):286-96. [Medline].

  15. Parodi MB, DI Stefano G, Ravalico G. Grid laser treatment for exudative retinal detachment secondary to ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2008. 28(1):97-102.

  16. Steinbrugger I, Haas A, Maier R, Renner W, Mayer M, Werner C. Analysis of inflammation- and atherosclerosis-related gene polymorphisms in branch retinal vein occlusion. Mol Vis. 2009. 15:609-18. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group. Argon laser photocoagulation for macular edema in branch vein occlusion. The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984 Sep 15. 98(3):271-82. [Medline].

  18. Roth DB, Cukras C, Radhakrishnan R, Feuer WJ, Yarian DL, Green SN. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections in the treatment of retinal vein occlusions. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2008 Nov-Dec. 39(6):446-54. [Medline].

  19. Kawaji T, Takano A, Inomata Y, Sagara N, Iwao K, Inatani M, et al. Trans-Tenon's retrobulbar triamcinolone acetonide injection for macular oedema related to branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan. 92(1):81-3. [Medline].

  20. Haller JA, Bandello F, Belfort R Jr, Blumenkranz MS, Gillies M, Heier J. Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 2010 Jun. 117(6):1134-1146.e3. [Medline].

  21. Joshi L, Yaganti S, Gemenetzi M, Lightman S, Lindfield D, Liolios V. Dexamethasone implants in retinal vein occlusion: 12-month clinical effectiveness using repeat injections as-needed. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Aug. 97(8):1040-4. [Medline].

  22. Mayer WJ, Wolf A, Kernt M, Kook D, Kampik A, Ulbig M. Twelve-month experience with Ozurdex for the treatment of macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion. Eye (Lond). 2013 Jul. 27(7):816-22. [Medline].

  23. Scott IU, Blodi BA, Ip MS, Vanveldhuisen PC, Oden NL, Chan CK. SCORE Study Report 2: Interobserver agreement between investigator and reading center classification of retinal vein occlusion type. Ophthalmology. 2009 Apr. 116(4):756-61. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  24. Scott IU, Ip MS, VanVeldhuisen PC, et al. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with standard care to treat vision loss associated with macular Edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) study report 6. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep. 127(9):1115-28. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  25. Abegg M, Tappeiner C, Wolf-Schnurrbusch U, Barthelmes D, Wolf S, Fleischhauer J. Treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion induced macular edema with bevacizumab. BMC Ophthalmol. 2008. 8:18. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  26. Fish GE. Intravitreous bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion and hemisphere retinal vein occlusion (an AOS thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2008. 106:276-300. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Rabena MD, Pieramici DJ, Castellarin AA, Nasir MA, Avery RL. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2007 Apr-May. 27(4):419-25. [Medline].

  28. Wu L, Arevalo JF, Roca JA, et al. Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Comparison of two doses of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: results from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 6 months of follow-up. Retina. 2008. 28(2):9:212-21.

  29. Schaal KB, Höh AE, Scheuerle A, Schütt F, Dithmar S. [Bevacizumab for the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion]. Ophthalmologe. 2007 Apr. 104(4):285-9. [Medline].

  30. Jaissle GB, Leitritz M, Gelisken F, Ziemssen F, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Szurman P. One-year results after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan. 247(1):27-33. [Medline].

  31. Prager F, Michels S, Kriechbaum K, Georgopoulos M, Funk M, Geitzenauer W. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results of a prospective clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr. 93(4):452-6. [Medline].

  32. Kreutzer TC, Alge CS, Wolf AH, Kook D, Burger J, Strauss R. Intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar. 92(3):351-5. [Medline].

  33. Pai SA, Shetty R, Vijayan PB, Venkatasubramaniam G, Yadav NK, Shetty BK, et al. Clinical, anatomic, and electrophysiologic evaluation following intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema in retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Apr. 143(4):601-6. [Medline].

  34. Wu Z, Sadda SR. Effects on the contralateral eye after intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections: a case report. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2008 Jul. 37(7):591-3. [Medline].

  35. Russo V, Barone A, Conte E, Prascina F, Stella A, Noci ND. Bevacizumab compared with macular laser grid photocoagulation for cystoid macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2009 Apr. 29(4):511-5. [Medline].

  36. Zhu D, Jin ZY, Tao Y, Jonas JB. Meta-analysis of the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in branch retinal vein occlusion. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jul-Aug. 29(6):523-9. [Medline].

  37. Brown DM, Campochiaro PA, Bhisitkul RB, et al. Sustained Benefits from Ranibizumab for Macular Edema Following Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: 12-Month Outcomes of a Phase III Study. Ophthalmology. 2011 Aug. 118(8):1594-602. [Medline].

  38. Heier JS, Campochiaro PA, Yau L, Li Z, Saroj N, Rubio RG, et al. Ranibizumab for Macular Edema Due to Retinal Vein Occlusions: Long-term Follow-up in the HORIZON Trial. Ophthalmology. 2012 Apr. 119(4):802-9. [Medline].

  39. Campochiaro PA, Sophie R, Pearlman J, Brown DM, Boyer DS, Heier JS. Long-term outcomes in patients with retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab: the RETAIN study. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jan. 121(1):209-19. [Medline].

  40. Tadayoni R, Waldstein SM, Boscia F, Gerding H, Pearce I, Priglinger S, et al. Individualized Stabilization Criteria-Driven Ranibizumab versus Laser in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: Six-Month Results of BRIGHTER. Ophthalmology. 2016 Mar 30. [Medline].

  41. Clark WL, Boyer DS, Heier JS, Brown DM, Haller JA, Vitti R, et al. Intravitreal Aflibercept for Macular Edema Following Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: 52-Week Results of the VIBRANT Study. Ophthalmology. 2016 Feb. 123 (2):330-6. [Medline].

  42. Campochiaro PA, Bhisitkul RB, Shapiro H, Rubio RG. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes progressive retinal nonperfusion in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 2013 Apr. 120(4):795-802. [Medline].

  43. Sophie R, Hafiz G, Scott AW, Zimmer-Galler I, Nguyen QD, Ying H. Long-term outcomes in ranibizumab-treated patients with retinal vein occlusion; the role of progression of retinal nonperfusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Oct. 156(4):693-705. [Medline].

  44. Finkelstein D. Ischemic macular edema. Recognition and favorable natural history in branch vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 Oct. 110(10):1427-34. [Medline].

  45. Uemura A, Yamamoto S, Sato E, Sugawara T, Mitamura Y, Mizunoya S. Vitrectomy alone versus vitrectomy with simultaneous intravitreal injection of triamcinolone for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009 Jan-Feb. 40(1):6-12. [Medline].

  46. Shimada H, Nakashizuka H, Hattori T, Mori R, Mizutani Y. Transient increase in macular edema following vitrectomy for retinal branch vein occlusion. Int Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr. 29(2):95-8. [Medline].

  47. Rehak J, Rehak M. Branch retinal vein occlusion: pathogenesis, visual prognosis, and treatment modalities. Curr Eye Res. 2008 Feb. 33(2):111-31. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  48. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Branch retinal vein occlusion: natural history of visual outcome. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan. 132(1):13-22. [Medline].

  49. Arnarsson A, Stefansson E. Laser treatment and the mechanism of edema reduction in branch retinal vein occlusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Mar. 41(3):877-9. [Medline].

  50. Avila CP Jr, Bartsch DU, Bitner DG, et al. Retinal blood flow measurements in branch retinal vein occlusion using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Nov. 126(5):683-90. [Medline].

  51. Baglivo E, Dosso A, Pournaras C. Thrombus and branch retinal vein occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1997 Jan. 235(1):10-3. [Medline].

  52. Battaglia Parodi M, Saviano S, Ravalico G. Grid laser treatment in macular branch retinal vein occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999 Dec. 237(12):1024-7. [Medline].

  53. Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group. Argon laser scatter photocoagulation for prevention of neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage in branch vein occlusion. A randomized clinical trial. Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986 Jan. 104(1):34-41. [Medline].

  54. Cahill MT, Kaiser PK, Sears JE, Fekrat S. The effect of arteriovenous sheathotomy on cystoid macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Nov. 87(11):1329-32. [Medline].

  55. Chen HC, Wiek J, Gupta A, Luckie A, Kohner EM. Effect of isovolaemic haemodilution on visual outcome in branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998 Feb. 82(2):162-7. [Medline].

  56. Chen SD, Lochhead J, Patel CK, Frith P. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for ischaemic macular oedema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan. 88(1):154-5. [Medline].

  57. Christoffersen NL, Larsen M. Pathophysiology and hemodynamics of branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1999 Nov. 106(11):2054-62. [Medline].

  58. Duker JS, Brown GC. Anterior location of the crossing artery in branch retinal vein obstruction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Jul. 107(7):998-1000. [Medline].

  59. Fekrat S, Goldberg MF, Finkelstein D. Laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis for nonischemic central or branch retinal vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998 Jan. 116(1):43-52. [Medline].

  60. Frangieh GT, Green WR, Barraquer-Somers E, Finkelstein D. Histopathologic study of nine branch retinal vein occlusions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982 Jul. 100(7):1132-40. [Medline].

  61. Friberg TR. Serpiginous choroiditis with branch vein occlusion and bilateral periphlebitis. Case report. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988 May. 106(5):585-6. [Medline].

  62. Funk M, Kriechbaum K, Prager F, Benesch T, Georgopoulos M, Zlabinger GJ. Intraocular concentrations of growth factors and cytokines in retinal vein occlusion and the effect of therapy with bevacizumab. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Mar. 50(3):1025-32. [Medline].

  63. Garcia-Arumi J, Martinez-Castillo V, Boixadera A, Blasco H, Corcostegui B. Management of macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion with sheathotomy and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Retina. 2004 Aug. 24(4):530-40. [Medline].

  64. Ho JD, Liou SW, Lin HC. Retinal vein occlusion and the risk of stroke development: a five-year follow-up study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb. 147(2):283-290.e2. [Medline].

  65. Ikuno Y, Ikeda T, Sato Y, Tano Y. Tractional retinal detachment after branch retinal vein occlusion. Influence of disc neovascularization on the outcome of vitreous surgery. Ophthalmology. 1998 Mar. 105(3):417-23. [Medline].

  66. Ikuno Y, Tano Y, Lewis JM, Ikeda T, Sato Y. Retinal detachment after branch retinal vein occlusion: influence of the type of break on the outcome of vitreous surgery. Ophthalmology. 1997 Jan. 104(1):27-32. [Medline].

  67. Jonas JB, Akkoyun I, Kamppeter B, Kreissig I, Degenring RF. Branch retinal vein occlusion treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Eye (Lond). 2005 Jan. 19(1):65-71. [Medline].

  68. Kir E, Saatci AO, Ozbek Z, Kaynak S, Ergin MH. Retinal breaks and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in association with branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1999 Apr. 30(4):285-8. [Medline].

  69. Kriechbaum K, Michels S, Prager F, et al. Intravitreal Avastin for macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion: a prospective study.Br. J Ophthalmol. 2008. 92(4):518-522.

  70. Kumar B, Yu DY, Morgan WH, Barry CJ, Constable IJ, McAllister IL. The distribution of angioarchitectural changes within the vicinity of the arteriovenous crossing in branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1998 Mar. 105(3):424-7. [Medline].

  71. Majji AB, Janarthanan M, Naduvilath TJ. Significance of refractive status in branch retinal vein occlusion. A case-control study. Retina. 1997. 17(3):200-4. [Medline].

  72. Mandelcorn MS, Nrusimhadevara RK. Internal limiting membrane peeling for decompression of macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: a report of 14 cases. Retina. 2004 Jun. 24(3):348-55. [Medline].

  73. Martin SC, Butcher A, Martin N, et al. Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul. 86(7):774-6. [Medline].

  74. Mason J 3rd, Feist R, White M Jr, Swanner J, McGwin G Jr, Emond T. Sheathotomy to decompress branch retinal vein occlusion: a matched control study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Mar. 111(3):540-5. [Medline].

  75. McAllister IL, Yu DY, Vijayasekaran S, Barry C, Constable I. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 1992 Oct. 76(10):615-20. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  76. McIntosh RL, Mohamed Q, Saw SM, Wong TY. Interventions for branch retinal vein occlusion: an evidence-based systematic review. Ophthalmology. 2007 May. 114(5):835-54. [Medline].

  77. Mester U, Dillinger P. Vitrectomy with arteriovenous decompression and internal limiting membrane dissection in branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2002 Dec. 22(6):740-6. [Medline].

  78. Mikkila HO, Seppala IJ, Viljanen MK, Peltomaa MP, Karma A. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis. Ophthalmology. 2000 Mar. 107(3):581-7. [Medline].

  79. Mitchell P, Smith W, Chang A. Prevalence and associations of retinal vein occlusion in Australia. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Oct. 114(10):1243-7. [Medline].

  80. Nakazato K, Watanabe H, Kawana K, Hiraoka T, Kiuchi T, Oshika T. Evaluation of arterial stiffness in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmologica. 2005 Nov-Dec. 219(6):334-7. [Medline].

  81. Ohara K, Okubo A, Sasaki H, Kamata K. Branch retinal vein occlusion in a child with ocular sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun. 119(6):806-7. [Medline].

  82. Opremcak EM, Bruce RA. Surgical decompression of branch retinal vein occlusion via arteriovenous crossing sheathotomy: a prospective review of 15 cases. Retina. 1999. 19(1):1-5. [Medline].

  83. Orth DH, Patz A. Retinal branch vein occlusion. Surv Ophthalmol. 1978 May-Jun. 22(6):357-76. [Medline].

  84. Osterloh MD, Charles S. Surgical decompression of branch retinal vein occlusions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988 Oct. 106(10):1469-71. [Medline].

  85. Ota M, Tsujikawa A, Murakami T, et al. Association between integrity of foveal photoreceptor layer and visual acutiy in branch retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007. 91(12):1644-1649.

  86. Pournaras CJ, Tsacopoulos M, Strommer K, Gilodi N, Leuenberger PM. Experimental retinal branch vein occlusion in miniature pigs induces local tissue hypoxia and vasoproliferative microangiopathy. Ophthalmology. 1990 Oct. 97(10):1321-8. [Medline].

  87. Remky A, Arend O, Jung F, Kiesewetter H, Reim M, Wolf S. Haemorheology in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion with and without risk factors. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug. 234 Suppl 1:S8-12. [Medline].

  88. Russell SR, Blodi CF, Folk JC. Vitrectomy for complicated retinal detachments secondary to branch retinal vein occlusions. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Jul 15. 108(1):6-9. [Medline].

  89. Shah GK. Adventitial sheathotomy for treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000 Jun. 11(3):171-4. [Medline].

  90. Shah GK, Sharma S, Fineman MS, Federman J, Brown MM, Brown GC. Arteriovenous adventitial sheathotomy for the treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan. 129(1):104-6. [Medline].

  91. Simons BD, Brucker AJ. Branch retinal vein occlusion. Axial length and other risk factors. Retina. 1997. 17(3):191-5. [Medline].

  92. Simsek S, Demirok A, Cinal A, Yasar T. Effect of sex in branch retinal vein occlusion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1998 Jan-Mar. 8(1):48-51. [Medline].

  93. Spaide RF, Lee JK, Klancnik JK Jr, Gross NE. Optical coherence tomography of branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2003 Jun. 23(3):343-7. [Medline].

  94. Staurenghi G, Lonati C, Aschero M, Orzalesi N. Arteriovenous crossing as a risk factor in branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994 Feb 15. 117(2):211-3. [Medline].

  95. Tameesh MK, Lakhanpal RR, Fujii GY, et al. Retinal vein cannulation with prolonged infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for the treatment of experimental retinal vein occlusion in dogs. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Nov. 138(5):829-39. [Medline].

  96. Wakabayashi T, Okada AA, Morimura Y, et al. Trans-tenon retrobulbar triamcinolone infusion for chronic macular edema in central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2004 Dec. 24(6):964-7. [Medline].

  97. Yamamoto S, Saito W, Yagi F, Takeuchi S, Sato E, Mizunoya S. Vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous adventitial sheathotomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Dec. 138(6):907-14. [Medline].

  98. Zhao J, Sastry SM, Sperduto RD, Chew EY, Remaley NA. Arteriovenous crossing patterns in branch retinal vein occlusion. The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Ophthalmology. 1993 Mar. 100(3):423-8. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Patient with an old branch retinal vein occlusion in which the hemorrhages have cleared. Note lipid exudation and evidence of cystoid macular edema.
Patient with a branch retinal vein occlusion complicated by vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. The patient had undergone vitrectomy and endolaser treatment. Note the sclerotic supertemporal vein.
This 42-year-old woman with hypertension noticed a sudden decrease in her vision. Visual acuity was 20/100. Note the intraretinal hemorrhages in just one segment of the retina.
Arterial phase of an angiogram demonstrates the lack of filling in the first branch arteriole of the superior temporal artery.
Late phase of an angiogram demonstrates late leakage in the macular area.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.