Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pilon Fractures Workup

  • Author: Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Anthony E Johnson, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 15, 2016
 

Laboratory Studies

If patients have preexisting conditions or comorbidities, then appropriate blood investigations are ordered.

Next

Imaging Studies

Plain radiography

Plain radiographs, including anteroposterior (AP), mortise, and lateral views centered over the ankle, help provide an understanding of the fracture fragments and the pattern and facilitate the planning of treatment.

In addition to these radiographs, obtain full-length radiographs of the leg, including the knee and ankle, to help assess alignment and to rule out any other fractures in the limb.

Plain radiographs of the contralateral ankle help provide a template for reconstruction of the ankle. Other areas of the body, such as the spine in the case of a fall from height,[19] may require radiographic evaluation, depending on clinical findings.

Two fracture classifications are commonly used, both of them based on the fracture pattern seen on radiographs, the degree of comminution, and displacement of the fragments.[20, 21]

The Rüedi and Allgöwer classification is as follows:

  • Type A - These are simple cleavage-type fractures with little or no articular displacement (see the first and second images below)
  • Type B: With these, displacement of the articular surface occurs without comminution (see the third and fourth images below)
  • Type C: Intra-articular displacement occurs with marked comminution (see the fifth and sixth images below)
Low-energy fracture in the distal tibia with no si Low-energy fracture in the distal tibia with no significant displacement.
Lateral view of pilon fracture. Lateral view of pilon fracture.
Low-impact pilon fracture with displacement but wi Low-impact pilon fracture with displacement but without significant comminution.
Lateral view of pilon fracture. Lateral view of pilon fracture.
Significant comminution and displacement of fractu Significant comminution and displacement of fracture fragments in a pilon fracture.
Lateral view of pilon fracture. Lateral view of pilon fracture.

The Association for Osteosynthesis/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) classification (part of a comprehensive classification of long-bone fractures and tibia, numbered 43) is as follows[22] :

  • Type A - These fractures are extra-articular and subcategorized as simple (A1), comminuted (A2), or severely comminuted (A3)
  • Type B - These fractures involve only a portion of the articular surface and a single column; subcategories include pure split (B1), split with depression (B2), and depression with multiple fragments (B3)
  • Type C - These fractures involve the whole of the articular surface; they may be categorized as a simple split in the articular surface and the metaphysis (C1), an articular split that is simple with a metaphysis split that is multifragmentary (C2), or a fracture with multiple fragments of the articular surface and the metaphysis (C3)

A type of pilon fracture that is associated with posterior disruption and instability is being recognized as a special entity. This type of pilon fracture requires posterior stabilization and is potentially associated with worse outcomes. Failure to identify this fracture pattern has led to poor clinical outcomes and persistent talar subluxation.

The purpose of a study by Klammer et al was to classify posterior pilon fractures into three primary categories by increasing degree of complexity, as follows[23] :

  • Type 1 fractures with a single medially based posterior malleolar fragment can be addressed through a posterolateral approach alone
  • Type 2 fractures, in which the posterior fragment is split with possible posteromedial comminution, may require an additional medial or limited posteromedial approach to assist in reduction and fixation of the posteromedial fragment or separate medial malleolar fracture
  • Type 3 fractures have the fracture line of the posterior malleolus exit the medial malleolus anterior to the posterior colliculus, and an additional anteromedial fragment is present; a medial approach is always necessary for reduction and fixation of the additional anteromedial fragment

Further investigations

Repeat radiographs after application of a spanning external fixator (traction radiographs) will yield a better understanding of the fracture pattern, fracture fragments, and fracture planes. This information is necessary for planning the surgical approach and achieving optimal implant placement and orientation of interfragmentary screws.

Computed tomography (CT) may be necessary in some cases where there is significant comminution or where percutaneous approaches are being planned. It is best obtained after the fracture is stabilized and spanned in an external fixator—a strategy summarized in the dictum "First span, then scan."

This strategy yields a better understanding of the fracture pattern, the degree of comminution, the displacement, and the impaction of articular fragments that may not be evident on plain radiographs. The degree of comminution may indicate severity of damage to articular surface and influence decision-making. This can be valuable in planning the operation (eg, by helping to determine the approach to the fragments and the orientation of the screws).

Despite the variations in the mechanism of injury and in the degree or direction of the forces involved, tibial plafond fractures occur in consistent fracture patterns and in the following fracture fragments as a consequence of the presence of ligamentous attachments[24] :

  • Anterolateral or Chaput fragment – This fragment remains attached to the fibula through the anterior tibiofibular ligaments and rotated externally and or subluxed and displaced inferiorly; traction and spanning may help with reduction of the subluxation with the help of ligamentotaxis, but if not, the fragment should be manipulated into as nearly anatomic a position as possible to reduce tension over the soft tissues and to help with definitive reduction and fixation at a later stage
  • Anteromedial fragment – The size of the medial malleolar fragment varies, depending on the direction of forces; a spiral force or vertical force causes a large fragment; if there is addition of an angular or adduction force, there may be a separation of the anterior and posterior colliculus
  • Posterior malleolar fragment(s) – These can be posterolateral (Volkmann) or posteromedial or central; the posterolateral fragment is attached to the fibula with posterior tibiofibular ligaments, and the posteromedial fragments are attached to the deltoid ligament; a large posterior malleolar fragment signifies posterior instability
  • Central impaction – A purely vertical force can drive impacted comminuted fragments into the tibial metaphysis completely bereft of any soft-tissue attachments
  • Anterior impaction fragments – These occur when there is a dorsiflexion force; they tend to be multiple and have capsular attachments

Cole et al reported on fracture lines using axial CT scan images in 38 consecutive AO/OTA type 43C3 fractures.[24] For each fracture, a map of the fracture lines and zones of comminution was drawn. Each map was digitized and graphically superimposed to create a compilation of fracture lines and zones of comminution. On the basis of this compilation, major and minor fracture lines were identified and fracture patterns were defined. (See the image below.)

CT scan showing an axial cut of the pilon fracture CT scan showing an axial cut of the pilon fracture.

Specifically, a basic Y pattern, constant across all patients, was identified where the stem of the Y went into the fibula incisura. All other fracture lines were considered secondary and these defined the comminution. One hundred percent of major fracture lines involved the tibiofibular joint and all exited medially in two general zones, anterior and posterior to the medial malleolus, best described as a Y-shaped pattern. Therefore, three main fragments existed in every single case. Comminution was present in 36 (95%) of 38 cases, and it was predominantly located centrally and in the anterolateral quarter.

Angiography is required if vascular compromise is suspected.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Chief, Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Director, Foot and Ankle Fellowship Program, Department of Orthopedics, University of Texas Medical Branch School of Medicine

Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Association, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Texas Orthopaedic Association

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Styker.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Anthony E Johnson, MD Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center; Research Director, US Army–Baylor University Doctor of Science Program (Orthopaedic Physician Assistant); Custodian, Military Orthopaedic Trauma Registry; Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine; Associate Professor, The Norman M Rich Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Anthony E Johnson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Healthcare Executives, American College of Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Association, Arthroscopy Association of North America, Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, International Military Sports Council, San Antonio Community Action Committee, San Antonio Orthopedic Society, Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons, Special Operations Medical Association

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons<br/>Received research grant from: Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Nexus Medical Consulting.

Additional Contributors

James K DeOrio, MD Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine

James K DeOrio, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

Disclosure: Received royalty from Merete for other; Received royalty from SBi for other; Received royalty from BioPro for other; Received honoraria from Acumed, LLC for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Wright Medical Technology, Inc for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from SBI for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Integra for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Datatrace Publishing for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Exactech, Inc for speaking a.

References
  1. Tarkin IS, Clare MP, Marcantonio A, Pape HC. An update on the management of high-energy pilon fractures. Injury. 2008 Feb. 39(2):142-54. [Medline].

  2. Michelson J, Moskovitz P, Labropoulos P. The nomenclature for intra-articular vertical impact fractures of the tibial plafond: pilon versus pylon. Foot Ankle Int. 2004 Mar. 25(3):149-50. [Medline].

  3. Brumback RJ, McGarvey WC. Fractures of the tibial plafond. Evolving treatment concepts for the pilon fracture. Orthop Clin North Am. 1995 Apr. 26(2):273-85. [Medline].

  4. Panchbhavi VK. Minimally Invasive Stabilization of Pilon Fractures. Techniques in Foot and Ankle Surgery. 2005. 4 (4):240-248.

  5. Borens O, Kloen P, Richmond J, Roederer G, Levine DS, Helfet DL. Minimally invasive treatment of pilon fractures with a low profile plate: preliminary results in 17 cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009 May. 129(5):649-59. [Medline].

  6. Hermans JJ, Beumer A, de Jong TA, Kleinrensink GJ. Anatomy of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis in adults: a pictorial essay with a multimodality approach. J Anat. 2010 Dec. 217 (6):633-45. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Sands A, Grujic L, Byck DC, Agel J, Benirschke S, Swiontkowski MF. Clinical and functional outcomes of internal fixation of displaced pilon fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998 Feb. 131-7. [Medline].

  8. Helfet DL, Koval K, Pappas J, Sanders RW, DiPasquale T. Intraarticular "pilon" fracture of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994 Jan. 221-8. [Medline].

  9. Pollak AN, McCarthy ML, Bess RS, Agel J, Swiontkowski MF. Outcomes after treatment of high-energy tibial plafond fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Oct. 85-A(10):1893-900. [Medline].

  10. Ruedi TP, Allgower M. The operative treatment of intra-articular fractures of the lower end of the tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979 Jan-Feb. 105-10. [Medline].

  11. Boraiah S, Kemp TJ, Erwteman A, Lucas PA, Asprinio DE. Outcome following open reduction and internal fixation of open pilon fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Feb. 92(2):346-52. [Medline].

  12. Watson JT, Moed BR, Karges DE, Cramer KE. Pilon fractures. Treatment protocol based on severity of soft tissue injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000 Jun. 78-90. [Medline].

  13. DeOrio JK, Ware AW. Salvage technique for treatment of periplafond tibial fractures: the modified fibula-pro-tibia procedure. Foot Ankle Int. 2003 Mar. 24(3):228-32. [Medline].

  14. Ketz J, Sanders R. Staged Posterior Tibial Plating for the Treatment of Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43C2 and 43C3 Tibial Pilon Fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2012 Jan 20. [Medline].

  15. Vidović D, Matejčić A, Ivica M, Jurišić D, Elabjer E, Bakota B. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications. Injury. 2015 Nov. 46 Suppl 6:S96-9. [Medline].

  16. Tscherne H, Oestern HJ. [A new classification of soft-tissue damage in open and closed fractures (author's transl)]. Unfallheilkunde. 1982 Mar. 85 (3):111-5. [Medline].

  17. Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN. Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma. 1984 Aug. 24 (8):742-6. [Medline].

  18. Gustilo RB, Anderson JT. Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: retrospective and prospective analyses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976 Jun. 58 (4):453-8. [Medline].

  19. Richter D, Hahn MP, Ostermann PA, Ekkernkamp A, Muhr G. Vertical deceleration injuries: a comparative study of the injury patterns of 101 patients after accidental and intentional high falls. Injury. 1996 Nov. 27 (9):655-9. [Medline].

  20. Bourne RB. Pylon fractures of the distal tibia. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Mar. 42-6. [Medline].

  21. Swiontkowski MF, Sands AK, Agel J, Diab M, Schwappach JR, Kreder HJ. Interobserver variation in the AO/OTA fracture classification system for pilon fractures: is there a problem?. J Orthop Trauma. 1997 Oct. 11(7):467-70. [Medline].

  22. Marsh JL, Slongo TF, Agel J, Broderick JS, Creevey W, DeCoster TA, et al. Fracture and dislocation classification compendium - 2007: Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification, database and outcomes committee. J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Nov-Dec. 21 (10 Suppl):S1-133. [Medline].

  23. Klammer G, Kadakia AR, Joos DA, Seybold JD, Espinosa N. Posterior pilon fractures: a retrospective case series and proposed classification system. Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Feb. 34(2):189-99. [Medline].

  24. Cole PA, Mehrle RK, Bhandari M, Zlowodzki M. The pilon map: fracture lines and comminution zones in OTA/AO type 43C3 pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Jul. 27(7):e152-6. [Medline].

  25. Thordarson DB. Complications after treatment of tibial pilon fractures: prevention and management strategies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2000 Jul-Aug. 8 (4):253-65. [Medline].

  26. Kralinger F, Lutz M, Wambacher M, Smekal V, Golser K. Arthroscopically assisted reconstruction and percutaneous screw fixation of a Pilon tibial fracture. Arthroscopy. 2003 May-Jun. 19(5):E45. [Medline].

  27. Nehme A, Tannous Z, Wehbe J, Moucharafieh R, Maalouf G. Arthroscopically assisted reconstruction and percutaneous screw fixation of a pilon tibial malunion. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007 Nov-Dec. 46(6):502-7. [Medline].

  28. Toker S, Hak DJ, Morgan SJ. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in trauma patients. Thrombosis. 2011. 2011:505373. [Medline].

  29. Blauth M, Bastian L, Krettek C, Knop C, Evans S. Surgical options for the treatment of severe tibial pilon fractures: a study of three techniques. J Orthop Trauma. 2001 Mar-Apr. 15(3):153-60. [Medline].

  30. Patterson MJ, Cole JD. Two-staged delayed open reduction and internal fixation of severe pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 1999 Feb. 13(2):85-91. [Medline].

  31. Sirkin M, Sanders R, DiPasquale T, Herscovici D Jr. A staged protocol for soft tissue management in the treatment of complex pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2004 Sep. 18(8 Suppl):S32-8. [Medline].

  32. Amorosa LF, Brown GD, Greisberg J. A surgical approach to posterior pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Mar. 24(3):188-93. [Medline].

  33. Mockford BJ, Ogonda L, Warnock D, Barr RJ, Andrews C. The early management of severe tibial pilon fractures using a temporary ring fixator. Surgeon. 2003 Apr. 1(2):104-7. [Medline].

  34. Femino JE, Vaseenon T. The direct lateral approach to the distal tibia and fibula: a single incision technique for distal tibial and pilon fractures. Iowa Orthop J. 2009. 29:143-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  35. Niikura T, Miwa M, Sakai Y, et al. Ankle arthrodesis using antegrade intramedullary nail for salvage of nonreconstructable tibial pilon fractures. Orthopedics. 2009 Aug. 32(8):[Medline].

  36. Borrelli J Jr, Ellis E. Pilon fractures: assessment and treatment. Orthop Clin North Am. 2002 Jan. 33(1):231-45, x. [Medline].

  37. Syed MA, Panchbhavi VK. Fixation of tibial pilon fractures with percutaneous cannulated screws. Injury. 2004 Mar. 35(3):284-9. [Medline].

  38. Graves ML, Kosko J, Barei DP, Taitsman LA, Tarquinio TA, Russell GV. Lateral ankle radiographs: do we really understand what we are seeing?. J Orthop Trauma. 2011 Feb. 25(2):106-9. [Medline].

  39. Tornetta P 3rd, Weiner L, Bergman M, et al. Pilon fractures: treatment with combined internal and external fixation. J Orthop Trauma. 1993. 7(6):489-96. [Medline].

  40. Koulouvaris P, Stafylas K, Mitsionis G, Vekris M, Mavrodontidis A, Xenakis T. Long-term results of various therapy concepts in severe pilon fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007 Jul. 127(5):313-20. [Medline].

  41. Sirkin M, Sanders R. The treatment of pilon fractures. Orthop Clin North Am. 2001 Jan. 32(1):91-102. [Medline].

  42. Yenna ZC, Bhadra AK, Ojike NI, et al. Anterolateral and medial locking plate stiffness in distal tibial fracture model. Foot Ankle Int. 2011 Jun. 32(6):630-7. [Medline].

  43. French B, Tornetta P 3rd. Hybrid external fixation of tibial pilon fractures. Foot Ankle Clin. 2000 Dec. 5(4):853-71. [Medline].

  44. Papadokostakis G, Kontakis G, Giannoudis P, Hadjipavlou A. External fixation devices in the treatment of fractures of the tibial plafond: a systematic review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008 Jan. 90(1):1-6. [Medline].

  45. Vives MJ, Abidi NA, Ishikawa SN, Taliwal RV, Sharkey PF. Soft tissue injuries with the use of safe corridors for transfixion wire placement during external fixation of distal tibia fractures: an anatomic study. J Orthop Trauma. 2001 Nov. 15(8):555-9. [Medline].

  46. Sirkin MS. Plating of tibial pilon fractures. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007 Dec. 36(12 Suppl 2):13-7. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Low-energy fracture in the distal tibia with no significant displacement.
Lateral view of pilon fracture.
Low-impact pilon fracture with displacement but without significant comminution.
Lateral view of pilon fracture.
Significant comminution and displacement of fracture fragments in a pilon fracture.
Lateral view of pilon fracture.
Soft tissue trauma, with blister and area of pressure necrosis over the medial aspect of the distal leg, in a patient who presented 48 hours after the injury.
Significantly displaced medial malleolar fragment responsible for the area of pressure necrosis.
Lateral radiograph of pilon fracture.
Necrotic area is excised and a bead pouch covers the wound.
Wound on medial aspect of ankle after 8 days.
Split skin grafting of wound.
Pilon fracture stabilized by a minimally invasive technique.
Pilon fracture stabilized with cannulated screws.
Patient with full active plantar flexion at 2-year follow-up.
Picture at 2-year follow-up showing full active dorsiflexion.
Patient at 2-year follow-up.
Pilon fracture showing significant comminution and displacement.
Lateral radiograph of pilon fracture.
External fixator stabilizing the pilon fracture. Swelling has resolved, and blisters have healed.
External fixator maintaining improved alignment of the pilon fracture.
Alignment in lateral view of the pilon fracture, stabilized in an external fixator.
CT scan showing multiple fragments in the articular dome of the pilon fracture.
CT scan showing an axial cut of the pilon fracture.
Minimally invasive plating technique performed as a second stage in the treatment of the pilon fracture.
Lateral view after minimally invasive plating of the pilon fracture.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.