Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Treatment & Management

  • Author: Nicholas Tedesco, DO; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD  more...
Updated: Apr 30, 2015

Medical Therapy

Selective arterial embolization has shown much promise for aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) in small studies. However, relatively few cases have been treated with this therapy because ABCs are rare and because selective arterial embolization has been available only since the 1980s.[29]

With the use of angiography, an embolic agent is placed at a feeding artery to the ABC, cutting off the nutrient supply and altering the hemodynamics of the lesion. Various materials, such as springs and foam, have been used to create the emboli.

Selective arterial embolization has the advantage of being able to reach difficult locations, being able to save joint function when subchondral bone destruction is present, and making the complications that are associated with invasive surgery (eg, bleeding) less likely to occur. Selective arterial embolization may be performed within 48 hours before surgery to reduce the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage.

Some of the literature suggests that selective arterial embolization can be a primary treatment if the following conditions are met:

  • Histologically confirmed tissue diagnosis of ABC
  • Technical feasibility and safety
  • Stability; no evidence of pathologic fracture or impeding fracture
  • No neurologic involvement

Only case evidence exists for intralesional injection, but the injection may be attempted for cases in which surgical access is difficult and for those in which other modalities are contraindicated.[30] (Note: Do not use this approach if the patient has allergies to the injection components, a pathologic or impeding fracture, neurologic symptoms, or unbearable symptoms such as pain. Do not use intralesional injection if a more proven treatment is indicated.)

There has also been case evidence for the use of calcitonin and methylprednisolone injections in the regression of ABCs. This is thought to combine the inhibitory angiostatic and fibroblastic effects of methylprednisolone with the osteoclastic inhibitory effect and the trabecular bone-stimulating properties of calcitonin. The injections are performed under computed tomography (CT) guidance and anesthesia. Growth of the ABC must be closely monitored, and the treatment may need to be repeated several times. Years may pass before the ABC resolves.

ETHIBLOC (Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany) injection is also performed under CT guidance and anesthesia.[31] The injected solution is a mixture of zein, oleum papaveris, and propylene glycol and acts as a fibrosing agent, and an inflammatory reaction may occur after its administration. Bony healing may take months to years. Side effects (eg, localized thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, osseocutaneous fistula formation, and severe surrounding tissue necrosis) make it a poor first-line choice in the absence of an obvious surgical contraindication.[11]

Some case evidence also suggests healing improvement when systemic calcitonin treatment is used as an adjuvant to other treatment modalities.

An Australian study by Clayer in 15 patients with pathologically confirmed ABC suggests that percutaneous aspiration and injection of ABCs using an aqueous solution of calcium sulfate may have value.[1] All patients except one who have reported pain before the procedure were completely without symptoms at 4 weeks post injection. The calcium sulfate was reabsorbed within 8 weeks.

During the minimum 2-year follow-up period, two patients developed local recurrence of the lesion, one of whom later developed a pathologic fracture. Two other patients sustained pathologic fractures at 12 and 22 months post injection, respectively. Clayer concluded that this procedure has "early clinical and radiological responses and a low complication rate in a consecutive group of patients with ABC."[1]


Surgical Therapy

The unusual stage 1 ABC can be treated with intralesional curettage[32] ; the more common stage 2 ABC is treated by intralesional excision. The difference between curettage and excision is that excision involves wide unroofing of the lesion through a cortical window by careful abrasion of all the surfaces with a high-speed burr and, possibly, local adjuvants such as phenol, methylmethacrylate (MMA), or liquid nitrogen. These adjuvants are controversial because firm evidence that they are effective is lacking, and their use entails considerable risk.

En-bloc or wide excision is typically reserved for stage 3 ABCs that are not amenable to intralesional excision (eg, extensive bony destruction); the recurrence rate after en-bloc excision is about 7%. Reconstructive options after wide excision include structural allografting and reconstruction with either endoprostheses or allograft-prosthetic composites.

In the past, intralesional excision was the mainstay of treatment. The ABC is accessed, a window is opened in the bony wall, and then the contents of the ABC are removed. Excision of the walls with curettes, rongeurs, or high-speed burrs has been described. The intralesional method leaves more bony structure intact than en bloc or regional resection.

Intralesional excision may also be used around joints and other vital areas to try to preserve function. The defect may then be filled with bone chips, bone strut, or other supporting material to add strength and to enhance healing of the excised area.

The surgeon may also use adjuvant therapy, which extends the area of treatment beyond that which can be physically excised. The use of liquid nitrogen, phenol, argon beam gas plasma photocoagulation, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) may achieve an extended area of treatment.

The adjuvants involve the use of chemical, freezing, or thermal means to cause bone necrosis and microvascular damage to the walls of the physically excised cyst, disrupting the possible etiology. Compared with en bloc and regional resection, the use of adjuvants leaves more bone intact, and an increased area is treated compared with that treated with intralesional resection alone.

Liquid nitrogen is the most popular adjuvant, and it is often described in the literature. After the ABC is exposed and a window is opened, liquid nitrogen may be applied by pouring it into the cyst through a funnel or by using a machine that is designed to spray the liquid onto the walls of the lesion. The surgeon should be sure to leave the window open, allowing the gas to escape.

A total of two or three cycles of freezing and thawing should be used to obtain maximum bone necrosis. The surrounding tissue, especially the neurovascular bundles, must be protected to ensure these structures are not damaged. Avoiding the use of a tourniquet with cryotherapy is suggested to keep the surrounding tissue vascularized, making it more resistant to freezing.

Phenol is much less often used as an adjuvant. Some authors have questioned the effectiveness of phenol because of its poor penetration of bony tissue compared with that of liquid nitrogen. However, phenol has had some success in certain studies, and it has the benefit of being easy to use. Phenol is simply applied to the mechanically removed walls by using soaked swabs. Any remaining phenol is removed with suction, and the cavity is filled with absolute alcohol. Finally, the cavity is irrigated with isotonic sodium chloride solution.

PMMA may also be used, although the effectiveness of its thermal properties in causing bone necrosis has been questioned in the literature. However, PMMA does have the benefit of rendering a large lesion mechanically sound and making it easier to recognize a local recurrence. If PMMA is used in a subchondral location, the joint surface should be protected by cancellous grafts or Gelfoam (Pharmacia & Upjohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI) placed before cementation. It is not clear that removing the cement and replacing it with a bone graft is necessary.

Argon beam coagulation has also been used in several studies, with some promising results.[33, 34, 35] One study noted that surgical treatment with curettage and adjuvant argon beam coagulation is an effective treatment option for ABC; the primary complication was postoperative fracture.[34]

An additional study found that argon beam photocoagulation while avoiding the toxic effects of phenol, yielded statistically equivalent recurrence rates, functional outcomes, and complication rates in the treatment of benign-aggressive bone tumors.[35] However, the authors also noted an increased fracture rate in the argon beam photocoagulation cohort as compared with the phenol cohort.

NOTE:  Special consideration is necessary in dealing with ABCs that are near open physes. The reader is referred to the literature for general considerations when operating around physes. The reported rate of physeal injury is significant, and patients and their families must be made aware of this possibility. Furthermore, it has been shown that attempts to spare the adjacent physes by performing a less-than-aggressive curettage of ABCs have resulted in increased risk of local recurrence in patients with open growth plates.[36, 37]

Spinal ABCs usually cause neurologic symptoms and pose treatment challenges. The details of surgical excision can be found elsewhere. There is evidence to support an attempt at one or two trials of selective arterial embolization before surgical excision.

A group in Japan developed an endoscopic approach to the treatment of ABC.[38] They successfully treated four patients with ABCs that lacked the aneurysmal component. The technique was completed with a variety of curettes, ball forceps, Kirschner wires (K-wires), an arthroscope, and a drill. The method may leave a more stable structure and is minimally invasive.

Treatment for a secondary ABC is that which is appropriate for the underlying lesion.


Preoperative Details

Extensive preoperative planning should be completed with the use of cross-sectional imaging. Embolization as a treatment or preoperative technique should be considered. When possible, a tourniquet should be used.

Thought should also be given to what possible methods and materials may be needed to provide stability after ABC excision or resection.


Intraoperative Details

Depending on the size and nature of the lesion, the patient's fluid volume and blood loss may have to be monitored closely.


Postoperative Details

Activity modification should be as tolerated to the fitness of the patient, the anatomic location of the surgery, and the extent of the surgery and reconstruction. Mechanical or chemical prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis may also be indicated.



Recurrence usually happens within the first year after surgery, and almost all episodes occur within 2 years.[39, 40, 41] However, patients should still be monitored on a regular basis for 5 years. It is beneficial to detect recurrence early when the lesion is still small and easier to treat. Children should be monitored until they have reached maturity to ensure that any possible recurrence does not cause deformity or interfere with their growth. Any patients who have received radiation should be monitored for life because of the risk of secondary sarcoma.



Complications can vary with the location in which the ABC arises. Many of these are related to the proximity of the surrounding tissues.

Universal complications that have been described with surgery include the following:

  • Recurrence
  • Blood loss
  • Wound infection
  • Wound slough
  • Wound hematoma
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Damage to the surrounding tissue
  • Possible physis damage
  • Pulmonary embolism

Additional complications that have been shown with spinal locations include the following:

  • Tear of the dura
  • Transient spastic paralysis from hematomas
  • Tear in the vena cava
  • Persistent back ache
  • Deformity
  • Neurologic symptoms

Complications that are associated with liquid nitrogen include the following:

  • Rare gas embolism
  • Rare late fracture
  • Wound necrosis
  • Damage to the surrounding tissue (eg, neurovascular bundles, physis)

A complication that is associated with phenol is necrosis of the surrounding tissue exposed to the phenol (eg, neurovascular bundles, physis). A complication that is associated with selective arterial embolization is unintentional embolization of a vital area. Finally, fracture risk may be elevated in those adjuvantly treated with argon beam photocoagulation, particularly in weightbearing bones.


Outcome and Prognosis

The prognosis for an ABC is generally excellent, although some patients need repeated treatments because of recurrence, which is the most common problem encountered when treating an ABC.

The overall cure rate is 90-95%.[42, 43] A younger age, open growth plates, and a metaphyseal location all have been associated with an increased risk of recurrence.[42] The stage of the ABC has not been shown to influence the rate of recurrence; however, most clinicians believe that stage 3 lesions have the highest recurrence rate, other factors being equal. Morphologic types I and II recur more often than types III, IV, and V.

Primary recurrence rates have varied greatly in several different studies. Small studies have shown a benefit to using selective arterial embolization, and some authors advocate it as a first-line treatment. Other authors argue that not enough data on selective embolization exist and that surgery is the first-line treatment. Intralesional excision has the most data to suggest that it is a safe and effective method.

Recurrence rates for different techniques have varied. Some studies have reported recurrence rates as high as 59% with intralesional excision[44] and as low as 0% with resection.[20] In a summary of studies of different treatment methods, the following rates of recurrence were reported[20] :

  • Irradiation – 34 performed with 4 recurrences (11.8% recurrence rate)
  • Irradiation and curettage – 35 performed with 5 recurrences (14.3% recurrence rate)
  • Curettage and bone graft – 484 performed with 149 recurrences (30.8% recurrence rate)
  • Curettage and cryobiopsy – 78 performed with 10 recurrences (12.8% recurrence rate)
  • Marginal resection – 81 performed with 6 recurrences (7.4% recurrence rate)
  • Wide resection – 59 performed with 0 recurrences (0% recurrence rate)

Future and Controversies

Most authors agree that some vascular malformation precedes the appearance of an ABC, but the underlying cause of the vascular malformation is not clear. Approximately 30% of ABCs are associated with other benign and malignant bony tumors. The most common association is with the giant cell tumor of bone; because of this strong association, some authors believe that all ABCs are produced by an accompanying lesion that is then obliterated by the resulting ABC. Others believe that ABCs can develop de novo.

In the future, advancements in osteoinductive materials (eg, genetically engineered bone morphogenic protein) may offer a less invasive treatment of ABC.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Nicholas Tedesco, DO Fellow in Orthopedic Oncology, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine

Nicholas Tedesco, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Bart Eastwood, DO Orthopedic Surgeon, Southwest Virginia Orthopedics and Spine

Bart Eastwood, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics, American Osteopathic Association, Arthroscopy Association of North America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Sean P Scully, MD 

Sean P Scully, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Society of Surgical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Harris Gellman, MD Consulting Surgeon, Broward Hand Center; Voluntary Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Surgery, University of Miami, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, Clinical Professor, Surgery, Nova Southeastern School of Medicine

Harris Gellman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Association, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, Arkansas Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Howard A Chansky, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center

Howard A Chansky, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


H Kurtis Biggs, DO Consulting Staff, Department of Orthopedics, Doctors Hospital of Stark County

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark McFarland, DO Staff Physician, Department of Orthopedics, Doctors Hospital of Stark County

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Clayer M. Injectable form of calcium sulphate as treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. ANZ J Surg. 2008 May. 78(5):366-70. [Medline].

  2. Segall L, Cohen-Kerem R, Ngan BY, Forte V. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the head and neck in pediatric patients: A case series. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Apr 21. epub ahead of print. [Medline].

  3. Burch S, Hu S, Berven S. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan. 19(1):41-7. [Medline].

  4. Schajowicz F. Aneurysmal bone cyst. Histologic Typing of Bone Tumours. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1992. 37.

  5. McCarthy EF, Frassica FJ. Aneurysmal bone cyst. Pathology of Bone and Joint Disorders: With Clinical and Radiographic Correlation. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders Co; 1998. 279-84.

  6. Vigorita VJ, Ghelman B. Aneurysmal bone cysts. Orthopaedic Pathology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins; 1999. 262-74.

  7. Canale ST. Aneurysmal bone cyst within benign tumors of bone. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 9th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Year-Book; 1998. Vol 1: 690.

  8. Bullough PG, Vigorita VJ. Aneurysmal bone cyst within benign non-matrix-producing bone tumors. Orthopaedic Pathology. 3rd ed. Baltimore, Md: Mosby-Wolfe; 1997. 402-4.

  9. Brastianos P, Gokaslan Z, McCarthy EF. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the sacrum: a report of ten cases and review of the literature. Iowa Orthop J. 2009. 29:74-8. [Medline].

  10. Sun ZJ, Zhao YF, Yang RL, Zwahlen RA. Aneurysmal Bone Cysts of the Jaws: Analysis of 17 Cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Jan 26. [Medline].

  11. Rapp TB, Ward JP, Alaia MJ. Aneurysmal bone cyst. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 Apr. 20(4):233-41. [Medline].

  12. Cottalorda J, Bourelle S. Modern concepts of primary aneurysmal bone cyst. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007 Feb. 127(2):105-14. [Medline].

  13. Sakamoto A, Tanaka K, Matsuda S, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the capitate: case report and a review emphasizing local recurrence. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2006 Oct. 97(10):302-7. [Medline].

  14. Jaffe HL, Lichtenstein L. Solitary unicameral bone cyst with emphasis on the roentgen picture, the pathologic appearance and the pathogenesis. Arch Surg. 1942. 44:1004-25.

  15. Leithner A, Windhager R, Lang S, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst. A population based epidemiologic study and literature review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Jun. (363):176-9. [Medline].

  16. van den Berg H, Kroon HM, Slaar A, Hogendoorn P. Incidence of biopsy-proven bone tumors in children: a report based on the Dutch pathology registration "PALGA". J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jan-Feb. 28(1):29-35. [Medline].

  17. Panoutsakopoulos G, Pandis N, Kyriazoglou I, Gustafson P, Mertens F, Mandahl N. Recurrent t(16;17)(q22;p13) in aneurysmal bone cysts. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999 Nov. 26(3):265-6. [Medline].

  18. Lau AW, Pringle LM, Quick L, Riquelme DN, Ye Y, Oliveira AM, et al. TRE17/ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) oncogene translocated in aneurysmal bone cyst blocks osteoblastic maturation via an autocrine mechanism involving bone morphogenetic protein dysregulation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 19. 285(47):37111-20. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  19. Kransdorf MJ, Sweet DE. Aneurysmal bone cyst: concept, controversy, clinical presentation, and imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Mar. 164(3):573-80. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  20. Schreuder HW, Veth RP, Pruszczynski M, et al. Aneurysmal bone cysts treated by curettage, cryotherapy and bone grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997 Jan. 79(1):20-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  21. Boubbou M, Atarraf K, Chater L, Afifi A, Tizniti S. Aneurysmal bone cyst primary - about eight pediatric cases: radiological aspects and review of the literature. Pan Afr Med J. 2013 Jul 28. 15:111. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  22. Capanna R, Bettelli G, Biagini R, et al. Aneurysmal cysts of long bones. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1985 Dec. 11(4):409-17. [Medline].

  23. Tsai JC, Dalinka MK, Fallon MD, Zlatkin MB, Kressel HY. Fluid-fluid level: a nonspecific finding in tumors of bone and soft tissue. Radiology. 1990 Jun. 175(3):779-82. [Medline].

  24. Murphey MD, wan Jaovisidha S, Temple HT, Gannon FH, Jelinek JS, Malawer MM. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma: radiologic-pathologic comparison. Radiology. 2003 Nov. 229(2):545-53. [Medline].

  25. Enneking WF. A system of staging musculoskeletal neoplasms. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Mar. 204:9-24. [Medline].

  26. Lodwick GS. Radiographic diagnosis and grading of bone tumors with comments on computer evaluation. Presented at the Proceedings ofthe Fifth National Cancer Conference, Philadelphia, Pa; September 17-19, 1964; pp 369-80.

  27. Lodwick GS. A systematic approach to the roentgen diagnosis of bone tumors. Tumors of bone and soft tissue. [Papers, M.D. Anderson Hospital]. Chicago, Ill: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1965. 49-68.

  28. Lodwick GS. The bones and joints. In: Hodes PJ, ed. Atlas of Tumor Radiology. Chicago, Ill: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1971.

  29. Rossi G, Rimondi E, Bartalena T, Gerardi A, Alberghini M, Staals EL, et al. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. Skeletal Radiol. 2010 Feb. 39(2):161-7. [Medline].

  30. Bush CH, Adler Z, Drane WE, Tamurian R, Scarborough MT, Gibbs CP. Percutaneous radionuclide ablation of axial aneurysmal bone cysts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Jan. 194(1):W84-90. [Medline].

  31. Adamsbaum C, Kalifa G, Seringe R, Dubousset J. Direct Ethibloc injection in benign bone cysts: preliminary report on four patients. Skeletal Radiol. 1993. 22(5):317-20. [Medline].

  32. Chowdhry M, Chandrasekar CR, Mohammed R, Grimer RJ. Curettage of aneurysmal bone cysts of the feet. Foot Ankle Int. 2010 Feb. 31(2):131-5. [Medline].

  33. Cummings J, Smith R, Heck, R. Argon Beam Coagulation as Adjuvant Treatment after Curettage of Aneurysmal Bone Cysts: A Preliminary Study. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2009/06. 468:231-237.

  34. Steffner RJ, Liao C, Stacy G, et al. Factors associated with recurrence of primary aneurysmal bone cysts: is argon beam coagulation an effective adjuvant treatment?. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Nov 2. 93(21):e1221-9. [Medline].

  35. Benevenia J, Patterson FR, Beebe KS, Abdelshahed MM, Uglialoro AD. Comparison of phenol and argon beam coagulation as adjuvant therapies in the treatment of stage 2 and 3 benign-aggressive bone tumors. Orthopedics. 2012 Mar 7. 35(3):e371-8. [Medline].

  36. Lin PP, Brown C, Raymond AK, Deavers MT, Yasko AW. Aneurysmal bone cysts recur at juxtaphyseal locations in skeletally immature patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Mar. 466(3):722-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  37. Erol B, Topkar MO, Caliskan E, Erbolukbas R. Surgical treatment of active or aggressive aneurysmal bone cysts in children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015 Mar 25. [Medline].

  38. Otsuka T, Kobayashi M, Sekiya I, et al. A new treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst by endoscopic curettage without bone grafting. Arthroscopy. 2001 Sep. 17(7):E28. [Medline].

  39. Rastogi S, Varshney MK, Trikha V, et al. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts with percutaneous sclerotherapy using polidocanol. A review of 72 cases with long-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Sep. 88(9):1212-6. [Medline].

  40. Vergel De Dios AM, Bond JR, Shives TC, McLeod RA, Unni KK. Aneurysmal bone cyst. A clinicopathologic study of 238 cases. Cancer. 1992 Jun 15. 69(12):2921-31. [Medline].

  41. Brosjö O, Pechon P, Hesla A, Tsagozis P, Bauer H. Sclerotherapy with polidocanol for treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. Acta Orthop. 2013 Oct. 84(5):502-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  42. Gibbs CP Jr, Hefele MC, Peabody TD, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the extremities. Factors related to local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999 Dec. 81(12):1671-8. [Medline].

  43. Papagelopoulos PJ, Currier BL, Shaughnessy WJ, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. Management and outcome. Spine. 1998 Mar 1. 23(5):621-8. [Medline].

  44. Marcove RC, Sheth DS, Takemoto S, Healey JH. The treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995 Feb. 311:157-63. [Medline].

  45. Bertoni F, Bacchini P, Capanna R, et al. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst. Cancer. 1993 Feb 1. 71(3):729-34. [Medline].

  46. Biesecker JL, Marcove RC, Huvos AG, Miké V. Aneurysmal bone cysts. A clinicopathologic study of 66 cases. Cancer. 1970 Sep. 26(3):615-25. [Medline].

  47. Bollini G, Jouve JL, Cottalorda J, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst in children: analysis of twenty-seven patients. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1998 Oct. 7(4):274-85. [Medline].

  48. Boriani S, De Iure F, Campanacci L, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mobile spine: report on 41 cases. Spine. 2001 Jan 1. 26(1):27-35. [Medline].

  49. Buraczewski J, Dabska M. Pathogenesis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Relationship between the aneurysmal bone cyst and fibrous dysplasia of bone. Cancer. 1971 Sep. 28(3):597-604. [Medline].

  50. Capanna R, Albisinni U, Picci P, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985 Apr. 67(4):527-31. [Medline].

  51. Capanna R, Campanacci DA, Manfrini M. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts. Orthop Clin North Am. 1996 Jul. 27(3):605-14. [Medline].

  52. Capanna R, Sudanese A, Baldini N, Campanacci M. Phenol as an adjuvant in the control of local recurrence of benign neoplasms of bone treated by curettage. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1985 Sep. 11(3):381-8. [Medline].

  53. Codd PJ, Riesenburger RI, Klimo P Jr, Slotkin JR, Smith ER. Vertebra plana due to an aneurysmal bone cyst of the lumbar spine. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2006 Dec. 105(6 suppl):490-5. [Medline].

  54. de Kleuver M, van der Heul RO, Veraart BE. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine: 31 cases and the importance of the surgical approach. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1998 Oct. 7(4):286-92. [Medline].

  55. Dwyer DM, Thorne AC, Healey JH, Bedford RF. Liquid nitrogen instillation can cause venous gas embolism. Anesthesiology. 1990 Jul. 73(1):179-81. [Medline].

  56. Fechner RE, Mills SE. Non-neoplastic lesions that mimic neoplasms. Atlas of Tumor Pathology: Tumors of the Bone and Joints. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (US); 1993. Vol 8.: 253-8.

  57. Gladden ML, Gillingham BL, Hennrikus W, Vaughan LM. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the first cervical vertebrae in a child treated with percutaneous intralesional injection of calcitonin and methylprednisolone. A case report. Spine. 2000 Feb 15. 25(4):527-30; discussion 531. [Medline].

  58. Jackson WF, Theologis TN, Gibbons CL, Mathews S, Kambouroglou G. Early management of pathological fractures in children. Injury. 2007 Feb. 38(2):194-200. [Medline].

  59. Malawer MM, Marks MR, McChesney D, et al. The effect of cryosurgery and polymethylmethacrylate in dogs with experimental bone defects comparable to tumor defects. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988 Jan. 226:299-310. [Medline].

  60. Marcove RC. A 17-year review of cryosurgery in the treatment of bone tumors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 Mar. 163:231-4. [Medline].

  61. Martinez V, Sissons HA. Aneurysmal bone cyst. A review of 123 cases including primary lesions and those secondary to other bone pathology. Cancer. 1988 Jun 1. 61(11):2291-304. [Medline].

  62. McQueen MM, Chalmers J, Smith GD. Spontaneous healing of aneurysmal bone cysts. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1985 Mar. 67(2):310-2. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  63. Szendröi M, Cser I, Kónya A, Rényi-Vámos A. Aneurysmal bone cyst. A review of 52 primary and 16 secondary cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1992. 111(6):318-22. [Medline].

  64. Tachdjian MO. Aneurysmal bone cyst. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders Co; 1990. 1251-8.

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm. Courtesy of Johannes Stahl, The Virtual Radiological Case Collection.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm. Courtesy of Johannes Stahl, The Virtual Radiological Case Collection.
Aneurysmal bone cyst affecting the lumbar spine. Courtesy of Nick Oldnall, Index: Spine.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm in a 13-year-old female adolescent. Left to right, the radiographs were obtained over a period of approximately 2 months. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm in an 18-year-old woman. Note the cortical erosion and slight expansion. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm. Used with permission from the American Registry of Pathology. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper arm. Used with permission from the American Registry of Pathology. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
In this histologic image, the vascular spaces vary widely in size and shape, and the septa range from thin to broad. Well-formed bone is focally present. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
In this histologic image, the septum contains fibroblasts, mononuclear histiocytelike cells, multinucleated giant cells, and capillaries. The lining of the large vascular spaces may be indistinct or consist of a single layer of attenuated stromal cells, as seen here. Used with permission from the American Registry of Pathology. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
This histologic image demonstrates lesional tissue that abuts the striated tissue where the cortex has been completely destroyed. Used with permission from the American Registry of Pathology. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
This histologic image shows a fibrous septum that contains a long strand of osteoid that appears to have buckled in the center. Used with permission from the American Registry of Pathology. Courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of distal radius in 11-year-old male. Note multiple septations, lytic cyst cavity, and extensive cortical thinning and expansion wider than adjacent distal radius physis in both anteroposterior and lateral planes.
Axial and sagittal T2-weighted MRI of distal femoral aneurysmal bone cyst. Note multiple fluid-fluid levels throughout lesion consistent with multiple blood-filled cavities separated by small septa.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.