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Osteogenesis Imperfecta Medication

  • Author: Manoj Ramachandran, MBBS, MRCS, FRCS; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD  more...
Updated: Aug 12, 2016

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and prevent complications.[28]



Class Summary

Bisphosphonates are the only drugs specifically licensed for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The most commonly used drug in this class is pamidronate.[31, 32, 29]

Bisphosphonates are analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate and act by binding to hydroxyapatite in bone matrix, thereby inhibiting the dissolution of crystals. They prevent osteoclast attachment to the bone matrix and osteoclast recruitment and viability.

For maximum gut absorption, all oral bisphosphonates should be taken at least 2 hours before or after meals. The newer bisphosphonates are not completely free of the risk of causing a mineralization defect, but their safe therapeutic window is much wider. They clearly are more potent than etidronate in reducing disease activity and normalizing alkaline phosphatase levels

Pamidronate (Aredia, APD)


Pamidronate is a potent second-generation bisphosphonate that acts principally by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Cyclic intravenous (IV) pamidronate is given in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg/y at 4- to 6-month intervals.

Alendronate (Fosamax)


Alendronate is a potent third-generation bisphosphonate that principally acts by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia)


Risedronate is a potent aminobisphosphonate that principally acts by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

Tiludronate (Skelid)


Tiludronate is a sulfur-containing bisphosphonate of intermediate potency between etidronate and newer nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. No food, indomethacin, or calcium should be ingested within 2 hours before and 2 hours after administration. A 3-month posttreatment evaluation follows.

Zoledronate (Reclast, Zometa)


Zoledronate inhibits bone resorption. It inhibits osteoclastic activity and induces osteoclastic apoptosis.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Manoj Ramachandran, MBBS, MRCS, FRCS Consultant Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgeon, Barts and the London NHS Trust; Honorary Senior Lecturer, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary's, University of London, UK

Manoj Ramachandran, MBBS, MRCS, FRCS is a member of the following medical societies: British Orthopaedic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Pramond Achan, MBBS, FRCS Senior Registrar, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, UK

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David H A Jones, MBChB, FRCS FRCS Ed(Orth), Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children; Senior Clinical Lecturer, University College London Hospitals, UK

David H A Jones, MBChB, FRCS is a member of the following medical societies: British Orthopaedic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Chief, Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Director, Foot and Ankle Fellowship Program, Department of Orthopedics, University of Texas Medical Branch School of Medicine

Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Association, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Texas Orthopaedic Association

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Styker.

Chief Editor

Harris Gellman, MD Consulting Surgeon, Broward Hand Center; Voluntary Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Surgery, University of Miami, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Surgery, Nova Southeastern School of Medicine

Harris Gellman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Association, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, Arkansas Medical Society, Florida Medical Association, Florida Orthopaedic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Peter R Calder, MBBS, FRCS(Eng), FRCS (Tr&Orth) Consulting Surgeon, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, UK

Peter R Calder, MBBS, FRCS(Eng), FRCS (Tr&Orth) is a member of the following medical societies: British Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ian D Dickey, MD, FRCSC Adjunct Professor, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine; Consulting Staff, Adult Reconstruction, Orthopedic Oncology, Department of Orthopedics, Eastern Maine Medical Center

Ian D Dickey, MD, FRCSC is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, British Columbia Medical Association, Canadian Medical Association, and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Stryker Orthopaedics Consulting fee Consulting; Cadence Honoraria Speaking and teaching

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Acute fractures are observed in radius and ulna. Multiple fractures can be seen in ribs. Old healing humeral fracture with callus formation is observed.
Beaded ribs. Multiple fractures are seen in long bones of upper extremities.
Wormian bones are present in skull.
Newborn has bilateral femoral fractures.
Table 1. Adapted Sillence Classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Type Genetic Teeth Bone Fragility Bone Deformity Sclera Spine Skull Prognosis
IA AD* Normal Variable but less severe than other types Moderate Blue 20% scoliosis and kyphosis Wormian bones Fair
IB AD Dentinogenesis imperfecta NA NA NA NA NA NA
II AD Unknown Very severe Multiple fractures Blue NA Wormian bones with absence of ossification Perinatal death
III AD Dentinogenesis imperfecta Severe Progressive bowing of long bones and spine Bluish at birth but white in adults Kyphoscoliosis Hypoplastic wormian bones Wheelchair-bound, not ambulatory
IVA AD Normal Moderate Moderate White Kyphoscoliosis Hypoplastic wormian bones Fair
IVB AD Dentinogenesis imperfecta NA NA NA NA NA NA
* AD = autosomal dominant; NA = not applicable.
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