Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Microtia Workup

  • Author: Samuel J Lin, MD; Chief Editor: Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS  more...
 
Updated: May 14, 2015
 

Imaging Studies

See the list below:

  • Thorough workup includes an evaluation of the kidneys and collecting system via ultrasound.
  • Evaluation of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine by plain radiographs rules out occult malformations.
  • In patients with craniofacial microsomia, 3D CT scans aid in surgical planning.
Next

Diagnostic Procedures

See the list below:

  • Infants should have baseline audiology evaluation of the affected and unaffected ears. Address hearing deficits promptly to prevent speech problems.
Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Samuel J Lin, MD Attending Surgeon, Plastic Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Associate Staff Physician, Otolaryngology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School

Samuel J Lin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery, Triological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Bruce S Bauer, MD Clinical Professor of Surgery, University of Chicago Division of the Biological Sciences, The Pritzker School of Medicine; Director of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem

Bruce S Bauer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Pediatric Plastic Surgeons, American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, American College of Surgeons, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Julia Corcoran, MD, FACS Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University, The Feinberg School of Medicine

Julia Corcoran, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Jaime R Garza, MD, DDS, FACS Consulting Staff, Private Practice

Jaime R Garza, MD, DDS, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, Texas Medical Association, Texas Society of Plastic Surgeons

Disclosure: Received none from Allergan for speaking and teaching; Received none from LifeCell for consulting; Received grant/research funds from GID, Inc. for other.

Chief Editor

Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS Associate Professor of Surgery (Plastic), Yale University School of Medicine; Chief of Plastic Surgery, West Haven Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic Surgery Research Council, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Indian Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Lawrence Ketch, MD, FAAP, FACS Head, Program Director, Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; Chief, Pediatric Plastic, The Children's Hospital of Denver

Lawrence Ketch, MD, FAAP, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Hand Surgery, American Association of Plastic Surgeons, American Burn Association, American Cleft Palate/Craniofacial Association, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Association for Academic Surgery, andPlastic Surgery Research Council

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Melnick M, Myranthopoulus NC, eds. External ear malformations: epidemiology, genetics and natural history. In: Birth Defects. Vol 15. 1979.

  2. Brent B. The correction of mi-rotia with autogenous cartilage grafts: I. The classic deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980 Jul. 66(1):1-12. [Medline].

  3. Poswillo D. Otomandibular deformity: Pathogenesis as a guide to reconstruction. J Max Fac Surg. 1974. 2:64-72.

  4. Wu R, Jiang H, Chen W, et al. Three-dimensional chest computed tomography analysis of thoracic deformities in patients with microtia. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 Apr. 68(4):498-504. [Medline].

  5. Nagata S. A new method of total reconstruction of the auricle for microtia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993 Aug. 92(2):187-201. [Medline].

  6. Firmin F. Controversies in autogenous auricular reconstruction. Presented at: Ear Reconstruction '98: Choices for the Future;. March 4-6, 1998. Lake Louise National Park, Alberta, Canada.

  7. Tolleth H. Artistic anatomy, dimensions, and proportions of the external ear. Clin Plast Surg. 1978 Jul. 5(3):337-45. [Medline].

  8. Yang SL, Zheng JH, Ding Z, Liu QY, Mao GY, Jin YP. Combined Fascial Flap and Expanded Skin Flap for Enveloping Medpor Framework in Microtia Reconstruction. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008 Oct 7. [Medline].

  9. Romo T 3rd, Morris LG, Reitzen SD, Ghossaini SN, Wazen JJ, Kohan D. Reconstruction of congenital microtia-atresia: outcomes with the Medpor/bone-anchored hearing aid-approach. Ann Plast Surg. 2009 Apr. 62(4):384-9. [Medline].

  10. Pierce GW. Reconstruction of the external ear. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1930. 50:601.

  11. Converse JM. Reconstruction of the auricle - Part I. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1958. 22:150-163.

  12. Converse JM. Reconstruction of the auricle - Part II. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1958. 22:230-249.

  13. Tanzer RC. Total reconstruction of the external ear. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1959. 23:1-15.

  14. Moon IY, Oh KS, Lim SY, et al. Estimation of eighth costal cartilage in surgical timing of microtia reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg. 2015 Jan. 26(1):48-51. [Medline].

  15. Oyama A, Fujimori H, Funayama E, Yamamoto Y. Intraoperative simulation device using negative pressure for construction of framework in microtia reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Mar. 121(3):129e-130e. [Medline].

  16. Helling ER, Okoro S, Kim G 2nd, Wang PT. Endoscope-assisted temporoparietal fascia harvest for auricular reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 May. 121(5):1598-605. [Medline].

  17. Aase JM, Tegtmeier RE. Microtia in New Mexico: evidence for multifactorial causation. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1977. 13(3A):113-6. [Medline].

  18. Adamson JE, Horton CE, Crawford HH. The growth pattern of the external ear. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1965 Oct. 36(4):466-70. [Medline].

  19. Genc S, Kahraman E, Ozel HE, Arslan IB, Demir A, Selcuk A. Microtia and congenital aural atresia. J Craniofac Surg. 2012 Nov. 23(6):1733-5. [Medline].

  20. Im DD, Paskhover B, Staffenberg DA, Jarrahy R. Current management of microtia: a national survey. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013 Apr. 37(2):402-8. [Medline].

  21. Lee LN, Boahene KD. A Novel Technique for Sculpting Costal Cartilage in Microtia Repair and Rhinoplasty. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2013 Jun 13. 1-3. [Medline].

  22. Lipan MJ, Eshraghi AA. Otologic and audiology aspects of microtia repair. Semin Plast Surg. 2011 Nov. 25(4):273-8. [Medline].

  23. Llano-Rivas I, Gonzalez-del Angel A, del Castillo V, et al. Microtia: a clinical and genetic study at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Arch Med Res. 1999 Mar-Apr. 30(2):120-4. [Medline].

  24. Poswillo DE. Discussion of Bennun RD, Mulliken JB, Kaban LB, Murray JE. Microtia: A microform of hemifacial microsomia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985. 76:864-865.

  25. Snively SL. Plastic surgery of the ear. Select Read Plast Surg. 1994. 7:1-26.

  26. Takahashi H, Maeda K. Survey of the familial occurrence of 171 microtia cases. Jpn J Plast Surg. 1982. 15:310.

  27. Tanzer RC. Total reconstruction of the auricle. The evolution of a plan of treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Jun. 47(6):523-33. [Medline].

  28. Thomson HG, Winslow J. Microtia reconstruction: does the cartilage framework grow?. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989 Dec. 84(6):908-15. [Medline].

  29. Tolleth H. A hierarchy of values in the design and construction of the ear. Clin Plast Surg. 1990 Apr. 17(2):193-207. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Lobular type microtia.
Conchal remnant type microtia.
Auricular dystopia definition.
Cartilage framework construction, Bauer technique (left) and Nagata technique (right).
Reconstruction of microtia.
Reconstruction of microtia.
Reconstruction of microtia.
Dissection of auricular remnant.
Dissection of auricular remnant.
First stage – lobular type.
Conchal remnant type.
Second stage.
Second stage.
Second stage.
Construction of tragus.
Reconstruction of microtia.
Vestige with meatus and canal.
Reconstruction of auricular dystopia.
Reconstruction of auricular dystopia.
Reconstruction of auricular dystopia.
Augmentation of skeletal support.
Integrating auricular reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis.
Integrating auricular reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis.
Integrating auricular reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis.
Integrating auricular reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis.
Auricular structure.
Dimensions and proportions of the external ear.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.