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Subperiosteal Facelift Treatment & Management

  • Author: Subhas Gupta, MD, PhD, CM, FRCSC, FACS; Chief Editor: Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS  more...
 
Updated: Jun 18, 2014
 

Preoperative Details

The position of the hairline is noted. If the hairline is low, the patient benefits aesthetically from an endoscopic forehead lift. If the hairline is high, this may have to be combined with a biplanar forehead lift or hair transplantation as a second stage. The presence of vertical and horizontal glabellar creases is noted, and the patient is asked to animate his or her face to assess the activity of the corrugator and procerus muscles. The image below illustrates 4 zones of the face that need to be considered for the endoscopic forehead lift.

The upper part of the subperiosteal facelift (endo The upper part of the subperiosteal facelift (endoscopic forehead lift) is performed in the sequence indicated. An incision is made over the temple. The upper part of zone 1 may be dissected without endoscopic assistance. Then the anterior part of the zygomatic arch is dissected and the lateral canthal area, if indicated. The posterior third of the arch is carefully dissected followed by the middle third. Zones 2 and 3 may be dissected blindly with a curved periosteal elevator. Zone 4 must be dissected with endoscopic assistance since many patients have small accessory nerves here.

The position of the lateral canthus, the projection of the cheek, the depth of the nasolabial creases, and the volume of both buccal fat pads are assessed. When examining the mid face, determine whether any deficit in this region lies laterally, medially, or in the submalar zone because the mobilized buccal fat pad then can be used to augment this area.[6]

Examining the lower one third of the face, the patient's occlusion is noted. Asymmetries in the mandible, the area of the geniomandibular grooves, and the projection of the gonial angles are noted. Patients are assessed to determine whether repositioning of soft tissues alone will produce the desired result or whether the volume loss of aging requires implant placement.

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Intraoperative Details

The authors use a 4-mm, 30° angled endoscope, selected elevators, and endoscopic manipulators. The face and mouth are prepared. The forehead, mid face, and mandibular region are injected with lidocaine 0.5% with epinephrine 1/200,000. This injection is performed at the periosteal level. A 1-cm incision is made 2 cm behind the temple hairline. The incision lies perpendicular to a line through the nasal ala and the lateral canthus. The superficial temporal fascia (STF) is identified and incised.

Between the STF and the deep temporal fascia lies an avascular plane of connective tissue that is easily elevated off the deep temporal fascia with a periosteal elevator. A plastic port protector is inserted into the incision. Dissection advances toward the temporal line of fusion, and a periosteal elevator is used to enter the subperiosteal plane, traveling beneath the lateral branch of the supraorbital nerve.

The dissection then proceeds toward the midline of the skull, followed by dissection of the orbital rim and zygomatic arch. After several centimeters of dissection with the deep temporal fascia proper lying beneath the elevator, a color change is noted. The innominate temporal fascia (IF), with its underlying temporal fat pad, appears yellow. The authors stay directly above the IF.

Approaching the zygomaticofrontal suture, a rounded tip elevator is used to avoid damaging the sentinel veins and zygomaticotemporal nerves in this area. Temporal vein #1 is the most superior vein. It is small and may be divided, if necessary. The authors like to leave a small cuff of fascial attachments around these structures to prevent tearing. Temporal vein #2 is found more inferiorly along the lateral orbital rim. This is a large vein and should be preserved. The zygomaticotemporal nerves may be found on either side of this vein.

The anterior third of the zygomatic arch is dissected almost to the lateral canthus and then inferiorly almost to the zygomaticofacial nerve. The posterior one third of the zygomatic arch is dissected through the temporal incision and traveling over the intermediate temple fascia to just above the zygomatic arch. This may be done blindly, keeping the elevator directly anterior to the tragus.

The middle third is then dissected in the same plane. Approximately 2 mm above the zygomatic arch, the intermediate temple fascia (ITF) is incised using this periosteal elevator. This ITF and some of the fat pad are raised superiorly. Dissection then continues inferiorly, raising the periosteum of the arch. This provides protection to the frontal nerve as it crosses the zygomatic arch. Vein #3 is found at the junction of the middle and posterior thirds of the zygomatic arch. Dividing the veins or nerves is not necessary to achieve good vertical mobilization. Epinephrine-soaked pledgets are then placed in this region through the temporal incision.

Just posterior to the hairline, 3 cm on either side of the midline, a 1-cm vertical incision is made down to the level of the periosteum. Make sure that the periosteum is raised with the scalp. The posterior dissection is done to the vertex of the scalp. This may be performed without the endoscope. Since the lateral dissection has already been performed from the temporal port, little chance exists of dissecting beneath the temporalis muscle.

The periosteum of the forehead is then elevated down to the glabella. This may be performed safely without the endoscope since the supratrochlear nerves are always more than 16 mm from the midline. The endoscope is used to dissect the lower half of the forehead.

This region may have multiple small sensory nerves directly exiting the skull. These are divided as far from the skull as possible to decrease the time to reneurotization. Dissection is aided by placing an elevator through the temporal port, which holds the forehead and periosteum away from the frontal bone, allowing for a complete release using endoscopic scissors.

Failure to release the periosteum over the lateral brow is the most common reason for inadequate elevation of the tail of the brow. Dissection is then continued medially until the supraorbital nerve is identified. The periosteum may be dissected behind this nerve and on toward the midline. When the periosteum is elevated, the bellies of the corrugator muscles may be observed. It is important to perform a spreading motion to separate the fibers of the corrugator muscles and preserve the branches of the supratrochlear nerve.

Large veins often are observed within the muscle. These must be identified and cauterized. The authors have found it useful to exert medial pressure with an assisting hand from outside. This helps to deliver the corrugator muscle into the jaws of the endoscopic biter. A subtotal resection of the corrugator muscle is performed. Beneath this lies the fascia of the depressor supercilii muscle. If clinically indicated, this muscle also may be removed.

Following removal of these muscles, a 0.5-1 cm horizontal section of the procerus muscle is resected just below the glabellar prominence. This is a subcutaneous muscle, which tends to bleed as it is being removed. Following removal of these muscles, the area is then packed with epinephrine-containing pledgets.

The mouth and skin are prepared with povidone-iodine solution (Betadine), an incision is made over the first premolar tooth, and a No. 9 periosteal elevator is used to elevate the periosteum sharply in a single plane. This dissection is continued almost to the piriform aperture medially, to the inferior orbital rim superiorly, and to the body of the zygoma. The endoscope is then inserted to dissect around the infraorbital nerve, the zygomaticofacial nerve, and the anterior two thirds of the zygomatic arch. This dissection is facilitated using one of the series of narrow curved periosteal elevators (Ramirez Minus Series, Snowden Pencer, Inc, Tucker, Ga).

Dissection is then continued inferiorly from the zygomatic arch to raise the masseter fascia from the muscle for about 25 mm. This allows a vertical lift of the lateral superficial soft tissues.

If the orbital fat is to be removed or redraped, then the periosteum over the inferior orbital rim is incised through the gingivobuccal incision. Light pressure on the globe causes prolapse of the orbital fat pads.

The lateral and middle compartments may be freed using endoscopic scissors. It is important not to tear the thin fascia that covers these fat pads. The fat pads are then sutured over the orbital rim to the malar periosteum or to the suborbicularis oculi fat (SOOF). This is performed using 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS, Ethicon, Inc) suture. A suture is then placed in the inferior half of the SOOF using 3-0 PDS. This suture is fed over the zygomatic arch and exits the temporal incision.

If the corners of the mouth are ptotic, then a 4-0 PDS suture is placed in the inferior malar periosteum fascia/fat near the intraoral incision. This flimsy structure is grasped in a tangential weaving motion. Multiple small branches of the long buccal nerve must be avoided when performing this maneuver. The free ends of this suture are passed over the zygomatic arch and exit the temporal incision. Generally, this suture is secured at a point superior and medial to that of the SOOF. The region of deficit in the cheek is remarked. The buccal fat pad (BFP) is released and repositioned to this area.

If the patient is believed not to have a deficit in the malar region, the fat pad may be removed or left in situ. This is done through the same intraoral incision. The periosteum and buccinator muscle are spread, and gentle teasing of the buccal fat pad can be performed using 2 smooth bayonet forceps. The fat pad can be gently teased from the overlying fascia. It is important not to tear the connective tissue covering the fat pad, since this tissue carries its blood supply and gives it structural integrity.

Once the fat pad has been released it herniates. If it is to be removed, it should be clamped and amputated using cautery. If it is to be suspended, then a 4-0 PDS suture is woven through the fat pad and its overlying capsule. If more lateral fullness is required, the suture is passed over the zygomatic arch, medial and superior to both other sutures.

However, if more anterior fullness is desired, the suture holding the fat pads may be attached around the suture suspending the SOOF. The temporal incision is retracted inferiorly and the 3 sutures are secured to the temporal fascia proper, anterior and inferior to the incision. Usually, the SOOF suspension suture is placed most laterally, while the BFP suture is placed most medially and superiorly. The suture that suspends the inferior malar soft tissues is placed between these two.

When performing the procedure on the opposite side, tension can be adjusted as the sutures are being tied to achieve symmetry with the first side. Butterfly drains are then connected to a Vacutainer (Becton-Dickinson, Rutherford, NJ). The free end of the drain is directed over the zygomatic arch into the mid face. The STF is then suspended superomedially to the temporal fascia proper with 4-0 PDS sutures. The skin is closed with interrupted 4-0 gut sutures.

Prior to closing the oral incision, the cavity is irrigated with saline and then antibiotic-containing solution. The incisions are closed using 4-0 chromic sutures.

A similar drain is inserted through a separate stab incision in the vertex region, and the tip of this drain is directed to the glabella. Gentle traction is then placed on the forehead to achieve the patient's aesthetic goals. The scalp is secured to the skull using a 1.1-mm drill bit with a 4-mm stopper and two 14-mm long endoscopic posts with 4-mm stoppers and 1.5-mm diameter (Synthes, Paoli, Pa).

Subperiosteal release of the tissues overlying the mandible may be performed through either an intraoral or a submental incision. When performing a deep plane neck lift or inserting alloplastic implants for the gonial angles or chin, the submental approach is preferred. This approach has a much lower risk of infection and heals well when placed in the correct position. The mentalis muscle is dissected from the mandible. The subperiosteal dissection continues around the mental nerves. It is important to leave a cuff of periosteum around the nerve to protect it from traction. If the soft tissues of the chin are ptotic, they may be rotated anteriorly and secured in position with a transosseous suture. It is important to perform a complete subperiosteal dissection traveling beneath the masseter and pterygoid muscles all the way to the angle. Failure to maintain a deep plane of dissection may result in injury to the marginal mandibular nerve.

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Follow-up

Iced saline compresses are applied to the face in intervals. Perioperative antibiotics are taken for 5 days. Patients are observed daily for 4 days. The dressing is removed on the first postoperative day. The drains are removed on the first or second postoperative day. Conforming adhesive tape is applied to the forehead and cheek area for 10 days to keep the edema to a minimum. The posts that anchor the forehead are removed after 14 days. Patients are seen for follow-up care at 3-month intervals for a year.

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Complications

Despite variations in technique, no permanent instances of frontal nerve palsy have been reported in recent literature. Episodes of temporary frontal nerve palsy resolved within 1-2 months.

Additional complications reported include temporary infraorbital nerve paresthesia, hematoma, asymmetrical smile, infections, and alopecia.

In a review of the direct transblepharoplasty approach to midface subperiosteal lift, Hester et al reported a 19% revision rate related to lower lid malposition.[7] They advocated the routine use of canthopexy or canthoplasty, if appropriate, through an upper lid blepharoplasty incision. The present authors, as well as others,[8, 9] have adopted canthal tightening as a standard part of the operation. However, many have reported on modifications that avoid routine canthoplasty with good result.[2, 10, 11]

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Outcome and Prognosis

The operation produces reliable and reproducible results that can improve transverse forehead creases, glabella frown lines, brow position, position of the lateral canthus, and position of the corners of the mouth. It can improve the tear trough and projection of the cheek. The images below demonstrate results of the subperiosteal facelift in 2 patients.

Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior vi Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior view. This patient wished to eliminate the slightly tense appearance to her glabella. She has mild hooding of her left eye and some ptosis of the left lateral canthus.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior vie Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior view. After an endoscopic subperiosteal facelift, she now has a more pleasing appearance with a slightly higher brow. The asymmetry of the lateral canthi has been corrected.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view. The hyperactivity of the corrugator supercilii muscles can be clearly seen. She has early hooding of the lateral orbit.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarters view Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarters view. The tense appearance of the forehead has improved. The hooding has improved. She has a slight lift to the corner of the mouth, and a fuller appearance of the cheek.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Close-up three qua Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Close-up three quarter view.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Close-up three-quar Subperiosteal facelift. After. Close-up three-quarter view.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior vi Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior view. This man requested correction of his transverse forehead rhytides, glabellar rhytides, brow ptosis, infraorbital hollowing, early left nasolabial creases, full submental region, and poor cheek and chin projection.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior vie Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior view. After an endoscopic subperiosteal facelift including placement of small beaded polyethylene implants and an anterior approach cervicoplasty, he has a more relaxed appearance. His brows have been raised a little. His glabellar rhytides and nasolabial crease have almost disappeared, while the transverse rhytides have softened. His infraorbital hollowing has been greatly improved.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view. The rhytides on the forehead, glabella, and nasolabial area are all visible. He has a marked tear-trough deformity and loss of cheek volume with a full lower cheek.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarter view. Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarter view. The rhytides are greatly improved, as is the infraorbital hollowing. His upper cheek volume has been increased while the lower cheek is now more concave.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Lateral view. The Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Lateral view. The hooding, tear-trough, lower cheek fullness, and neck fullness are all obvious.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Lateral view. His l Subperiosteal facelift. After. Lateral view. His lateral brow has a better relationship to the lateral orbit. The tear-trough is improved. His lower cheek is flatter. The chin has better projection. The submental area is less full. There is a better cervicomental break.
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Future and Controversies

The adoption of endoscopic techniques by an increasing number of surgeons has increased the popularity of the subperiosteal approach. The bony landmarks and attachments of muscles useful for orientation are clearly seen. These landmarks are not always available in the subgaleal or intermediate plane techniques. The subperiosteal plane allows the forehead and mid face to be dissected in the same plane. This plane does not contain branches of the facial nerve. The vascularity of the face is not compromised. It is the only technique that allows repositioning of the soft tissues with relation to their bony attachments. The rate of frontal branch neurapraxia has been minimized through limited dissection or incision through the superficial layer of the deep temporal fascia. Ramirez points out that, despite evolution in the technical procedure, the principles of wide subperiosteal release, en bloc mobilization in superior and superolateral vectors, and stable suspension have remained the same.[2]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Subhas Gupta, MD, PhD, CM, FRCSC, FACS Chief of Surgical Services, Professor of Surgery, Chairman, Department of Plastic Surgery, Director of Plastic Surgery Residency, Director of Comprehensive Wound Service, Department of Plastic Surgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine

Subhas Gupta, MD, PhD, CM, FRCSC, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Phlebology, Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Plastic Surgery Research Council, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Wound Healing Society, California Society of Plastic Surgeons, American Burn Association, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Medical Informatics Association, Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Quebec Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Mark Martin, MD, DMD, FRCSC Assistant Professor of Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Jorge I de la Torre, MD, FACS Professor of Surgery and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chief, Division of Plastic Surgery, Residency Program Director, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine; Director, Center for Advanced Surgical Aesthetics

Jorge I de la Torre, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Burn Association, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery, Association for Academic Surgery, Medical Association of the State of Alabama

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS Associate Professor of Surgery (Plastic), Yale University School of Medicine; Chief of Plastic Surgery, West Haven Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Deepak Narayan, MD, FRCS is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic Surgery Research Council, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Indian Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

David W Furnas, MD, FACS Emeritus Professor and Chief, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine

David W Furnas, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, American College of Surgeons, American Head and Neck Society, American Medical Association, American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, American Society of Transplantation, California Medical Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Plastic Surgery Research Council, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal Society of Medicine, Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Oscar Ramirez, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Plastic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Oscar Ramirez is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, and American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Keith M Robertson, MD, LRCSI, LRCPI, FACS Consulting Staff, Chesapeake Plastic Surgery Associates, Suburban Hospital, Esthetique Internationale; Consulting Staff, Department of Plastic Surgery, Greater Baltimore Medical Center

Keith M Robertson is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Brinda Thimmappa, MD Surgeon, Division of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Southwest Washington Medical Group

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Paul MD, Calvert JW, Evans GR. The evolution of the midface lift in aesthetic plastic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 May. 117(6):1809-27. [Medline].

  2. Ramirez OM. Three-dimensional endoscopic midface enhancement: A personal quest for the ideal cheek rejuvenation. Plast Reonstr Surg. 2002 Jan. 109(1):329-40. [Medline].

  3. Pessa JE. An algorithm of facial aging: verification of Lambros's theory by three-dimensional stereolithography, with reference to the pathogenesis of midfacial aging, scleral show, and the lateral suborbital trough deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000 Aug. 106(2):479-88. [Medline].

  4. Heinrichs HL, Kaidi AA. Subperiosteal face lift: a 200-case, 4-year review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep. 102(3):843-55. [Medline].

  5. Ramirez OM. Classification of facial rejuvenation techniques based on the subperiosteal approach and ancillary procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996 Jan. 97(1):45-55. [Medline].

  6. Hoenig JF, Knutti D, de la Fuente A. Vertical subperiosteal mid-face-lift for treatment of malar festoons. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011 Aug. 35(4):522-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Hester TR Jr, Codner MA, McCord CD, Nahai F, Giannopoulos A. Evolution of technique of the direct transblepharoplasty approach for the correction of lower lid and midfacial aging: maximizing results and minimizing complications in a 5-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000 Jan. 105(1):393-406. [Medline].

  8. Williams JV. Transblepharoplasty endoscopic subperiosteal midface lift. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002 Dec. 110(7):1769-75. [Medline].

  9. Patipa M. Transblepharoplasty lower eyelid and midface rejuvenation: part I. Avoiding complications by utilizing lessons learned from the treatment of complications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Apr 15. 113(5):1459-68; discussion 1475-7. [Medline].

  10. Gunter JP, Hackney FL. A simplified transblepharoplasty subperiosteal cheek lift. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 Jun. 103(7):2029-35; discussion 2036-41. [Medline].

  11. Paul MD. Modifications to an approach for correcting midfacial aging with a periosteal hinge flap. Aesthet Surg J. 1998 May-Jun. 18(3):220-1. [Medline].

  12. Gosain AK, Sewall SR, Yousif NJ. The temporal branch of the facial nerve: how reliably can we predict its path?. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Apr. 99(5):1224-33. [Medline].

 
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The upper part of the subperiosteal facelift (endoscopic forehead lift) is performed in the sequence indicated. An incision is made over the temple. The upper part of zone 1 may be dissected without endoscopic assistance. Then the anterior part of the zygomatic arch is dissected and the lateral canthal area, if indicated. The posterior third of the arch is carefully dissected followed by the middle third. Zones 2 and 3 may be dissected blindly with a curved periosteal elevator. Zone 4 must be dissected with endoscopic assistance since many patients have small accessory nerves here.
Subperiosteal facelift. (A) This endoscopic view shows the frontal bone (F) and the raised periosteum (P). An endoscopic instrument is retrieving a gauze pack. One of the accessory nerves may be seen exiting the frontal bone in the foreground. If these nerves must be cut, this is done as far from the bone as possible to decrease the distance that the nerve must regrow.(B) The supraorbital nerve (SON) can be clearly seen after removal of the corrugator muscles from around it.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior view. This patient wished to eliminate the slightly tense appearance to her glabella. She has mild hooding of her left eye and some ptosis of the left lateral canthus.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior view. After an endoscopic subperiosteal facelift, she now has a more pleasing appearance with a slightly higher brow. The asymmetry of the lateral canthi has been corrected.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view. The hyperactivity of the corrugator supercilii muscles can be clearly seen. She has early hooding of the lateral orbit.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarters view. The tense appearance of the forehead has improved. The hooding has improved. She has a slight lift to the corner of the mouth, and a fuller appearance of the cheek.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Close-up three quarter view.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Close-up three-quarter view.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Anteroposterior view. This man requested correction of his transverse forehead rhytides, glabellar rhytides, brow ptosis, infraorbital hollowing, early left nasolabial creases, full submental region, and poor cheek and chin projection.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Anteroposterior view. After an endoscopic subperiosteal facelift including placement of small beaded polyethylene implants and an anterior approach cervicoplasty, he has a more relaxed appearance. His brows have been raised a little. His glabellar rhytides and nasolabial crease have almost disappeared, while the transverse rhytides have softened. His infraorbital hollowing has been greatly improved.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Three-quarter view. The rhytides on the forehead, glabella, and nasolabial area are all visible. He has a marked tear-trough deformity and loss of cheek volume with a full lower cheek.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Three-quarter view. The rhytides are greatly improved, as is the infraorbital hollowing. His upper cheek volume has been increased while the lower cheek is now more concave.
Subperiosteal facelift. Before. Lateral view. The hooding, tear-trough, lower cheek fullness, and neck fullness are all obvious.
Subperiosteal facelift. After. Lateral view. His lateral brow has a better relationship to the lateral orbit. The tear-trough is improved. His lower cheek is flatter. The chin has better projection. The submental area is less full. There is a better cervicomental break.
 
 
 
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